DEM Modelling of Silo Loads Asymmetry Induced by Eccentric Discharge

  • B. ChenEmail author
  • A. Roberts
  • T. Donohue
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Physics book series (SPPHY, volume 188)


The eccentric discharge of bulk solids from a silo can lead to asymmetry in the normal pressure distribution around the silo walls. In this study, the wall loads of square silos during the eccentric discharge operation were investigated by performing a range of DEM simulations. The DEM results indicate that the wall pressure on the side furthest from the eccentric discharge location was larger than that on the nearest side, being comparable to those derived from AS3774. The DEM results also show significant variation in the wall load distributions around the silo walls. The DEM simulations are also used to explore the effects of a number of parameters, i.e. particle-particle friction coefficient, rolling friction coefficient and outlet eccentricity.


  1. 1.
    AS3774-1996: Loads on Bulk Solids Containers. Standards Association of Australia (1996) Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    EN1991-4: Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures, Part 4 Silos and Tanks (2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ramírez, J., Nielsen, J., Ayuga, F.: Pressure measurements in steel silos with eccentric hoppers. Powder Technol. 201(1), 7–20 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Roberts, A.W., Ooms, M.: Wall loads in steel and concrete bins and silos due to eccentric draw-down and other factors. In: 2nd International Conference on Design of Silos for Strength and Flow, Stratford-upon-Avon, UK, 7–9 November 1983Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vidal, P., Gallego, E., Guaita, M., Ayuga, F.: Finite element analysis under different boundary conditions of the filling of cylindrical steel silos having an eccentric hopper. J. Constr. Steel Res. 64(4), 480–492 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vidal, P., Couto, A., Ayuga, F., Guaita, M.: Influence of hopper eccentricity on discharge of cylindrical mass flow silos with rigid walls. J. Eng. Mech. 132(9), 1026–1033 (2006). ASCECrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kobylka, R., Molenda, M.: DEM modelling of silo load asymmetry due to eccentric filling and discharge. Powder Technol. 233, 65–71 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Matchett, A.J., Langston, P.A., McGlinchey, D.: A model for stresses in a circular silo with an off-centre circular core, using the concept of a principal stress cap: solutions for a completely filled silo and comparison with DEM data. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 93, 330–348 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ai, J., Chen, J., Rotter, M., Ooi, J.Y.: Assessment of rolling resistance models in discrete element simulations. Powder Technol. 206, 269–282 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Coetzee, C.J., Lombard, S.G.: Discrete element method modelling of a centrifugal fertiliser spreader. Biosyst. Eng. 109, 308–325 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wensrich, C.M., Katterfeld, A.: Rolling friction as a technique for modelling particle shape in DEM. Powder Technol. 217, 409–417 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jenike, A.W., Johanson, J.R.: Bins loads. J. Struct. Div. Proc. ASCE 94(ST4), 1011–1041 (1968)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jamieson, H.A.: Grain pressures in deep bins. Trans. Can. Soc. Civil Eng. XVII, 554–607 (1903)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    González-Montellano, C., Gallego, E., Ramírez-Gómez, Á., Ayuga, F.: Three dimensional discrete element models for simulating the filling and emptying of silos: analysis of numerical results. Comput. Chem. Eng. 40, 22–32 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.TUNRA Bulk SolidsThe University of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia

Personalised recommendations