Extracellular Microvesicles (ExMVs) in Cell to Cell Communication: A Role of Telocytes
There are several mechanisms by which cells communicate with each other. Evidence accumulates that the evolutionary oldest mechanisms of cell-cell communication involves extracellular microvesicles (ExMVs). Generally, these circular membrane fragments enriched for mRNA, miRNA, proteins, and bioactive lipids are released by exocytosis from endosomal compartment or are directly formed by budding from cell surface membranes. ExMVs from endosomal compartment called exosomes are smaller in size ~100 nM as compared to larger ones released from cell membranes that are in size up to 1 μM. In this chapter we will present an emerging link between ExMVs and recently identified novel cell-cell communication network involving a new type of cell known as telocyte. Mounting evidence accumulates that telocytes mediate several of their biological effects in several organs by releasing ExMVs enriched in mRNA, miRNA, proteins, and several biological mediators to the target cells.
KeywordsExtracellular microvesicles (ExMVs) Telocytes Exosomes Ectosomes Multivesicular cargo Cell-cell communication Horizontal transfer of mRNA Membrane lipid rafts
This work was supported by NIH grants 2R01 DK074720 and R01HL112788, the Stella and Henry Endowment, and Maestro grant 2011/02/A/NZ4/00035 to MZR.
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