Telocytes pp 403-424

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 913) | Cite as

Telocytes of Fascial Structures

  • Joanna Dawidowicz
  • Natalia Matysiak
  • Sylwia Szotek
  • Krzysztof Maksymowicz
Chapter

Abstract

Currently, the exact role of telocytes within fascial structures is unknown. The morphology, distribution and behaviour of fascial telocytes as well as the mutual relationship between telocytes and other cellular fascia constituents should be definitely a subject of further studies. It will contribute to better understanding of the role of the fascial system in health and diseases, may shed light on the regeneration potential of these tissues and may help to find targets for future treatments for locomotor disorders, including fascial diseases. Last but not least, confirmation of the presence of telocytes within fascia may contribute to optimise the use of fascia as a graft material.

Keywords

Connective tissue communication network Fascia Telocytes Transmission electron microscopy 

References

  1. 1.
    Allen WE. Terminologia anatomica: international anatomical terminology and terminologia histologica: international terms for human cytology and histology. J Anat. 2009;215(2):221.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Batt ME. Medial tibial stress syndrome. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45:e2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benetazzo L, Bizzego A, De Caro R, Frigo G, Guidolin D, Stecco C. 3D reconstruction of the crural and thoracolumbar fasciae. Surg Radiol Anat. 2011;33(10):855–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Benjamin M. The fascia of the limbs and back-a review. J Anat. 2009;214(1):1–18.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bordoni B, Zanier E. Clinical and symptomatological reflections: the fascial system. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2014;18:401–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bosco C, Díaz E, Gutiérrez R, González J, Pérez J. Ganglionar nervous cells and telocytes in the pancreas of Octodon degus: extra and intrapancreatic ganglionar cells and telocytes in the degus. Auton Neurosci. 2013;177(2):224–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cantarero I, Luesma MJ, Alvarez-Dotu JM, Muñoz E, Junquera C. Transmission electron microscopy as key technique for the characterization of telocytes. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2016;11(5):410–4.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cavey M, Lecuit T. Molecular bases of cell-cell junctions stability and dynamics. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2009;1(5):a002998.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chaitow L. The fascia debate. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2014;18(3):443.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cismasiu VB, Radu E, Popescu LM. miR-193 expression differentiates telocytes from other stromal cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2011;15(5):1071–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cretoiu D, Cretoiu SM, Simionescu AA, Popescu LM. Telocytes, a distinct type of cell among the stromal cells present in the lamina propria of jejunum. Histol Histopathol. 2012;27(8):1067–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cretoiu SM, Cretoiu D, Marin A, Radu BM, Popescu LM. Telocytes: ultrastructural, immunohistochemical and electrophysiological characteristics in human myometrium. Reproduction. 2013;145(4):357–70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cretoiu SM, Popescu LM. Telocytes revisited. Biomol Concepts. 2014;5(5):353–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dawidowicz J, Szotek S, Matysiak N, Mielańczyk Ł, Maksymowicz K. Electron microscopy of human fascia lata; focus on telocytes. J Cell Mol Med. 2015;19(10):2500–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Demirci N, Tönük E. Non-integer viscoelastic constitutive law to model soft biological tissues to in-vivo indentation. Acta Bioeng Biomech. 2014;16(4):13–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Derwin KA, Baker AR, Spragg RK, Leigh DR, Farhat W, Iannotti JP. Regional variability, processing methods, and biophysical properties of human fascia lata extracellular matrix. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2008;84(2):500–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Eagan TS, Meltzer KR, Standley PR. Importance of strain direction in regulating human fibroblast proliferation and cytokine secretion: a useful in vitro model for soft tissue injury and manual medicine treatments. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2007;30(8):584–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eng CM, Pancheri FQ, Lieberman DE, Biewener AA, Dorfmann L. Directional differences in the biaxial material properties of fascia lata and the implications for fascia function. Ann Biomed Eng. 2014;42(6):1224–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Faussone-Pellegrini MS, Popescu LM. Telocytes. Biomol Concepts. 2011;2(6):481–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fu S, Wang F, Cao Y, Huang Q, Xiao J, Yang C, Popescu LM. Telocytes in human liver fibrosis. J Cell Mol Med. 2015;19(3):676–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Galbraith RM, Lavallee ME. Medial tibial stress syndrome: conservative treatment options. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2009;2(3):127–33.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gatton ML, Pearcy MJ, Pettet GJ, Evans JH. A three-dimensional mathematical model of the thoracolumbar fascia and an estimate of its biomechanical effect. J Biomech. 2010;43(14):2792–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gherghiceanu M, Popescu LM. Cardiac telocytes-their junctions and functional implications. Cell Tissue Res. 2012;348(2):265–79.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Green KJ, Getsios S, Troyanovsky S, Godsel LM. Intercellular junction assembly, dynamics, and homeostasis. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2010;2(2):a000125.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hedley G. Notes on visceral adhesions as fascial pathology. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2010;14(3):255–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hinescu ME, Gherghiceanu M, Suciu L, Popescu LM. Telocytes in pleura: two- and three-dimensional imaging by transmission electron microscopy. Cell Tissue Res. 2011;343(2):389–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Huang BK, Campos JC, Ghobrial P, Peschka M, Pretterklieber ML, Skaf AY, Chung CB, Pathria MN. Injury of the gluteal aponeurotic fascia and proximal iliotibial band: anatomy, pathologic conditions, and MR maging. Radio Graph. 2013;33(5):1437–52.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hyrtl J. Onomatologia Anatomica: Geschichte und Kritik der Anatomichen Sprache der Gegenwart. Vienna: Wilhelm Braumüller; 1880.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Klingler W, Velders M, Hoppe K, Pedro M, Schleip R. Clinical relevance of fascial tissue and dysfunctions. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2014;18(8):439.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kumka M. Kumka’s response to Stecco’s fascial nomenclature editorial. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2014;18(4):591–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kumka M, Bonar J. Fascia: a morphological description and classification system based on a literature review. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2012;56(3):179–91.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Langevin HM. Langevin’s response to Stecco’s fascial nomenclature editorial. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2014;18(3):444.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Langevin HM, Huijing PA. Communicating about fascia: history, pitfalls, and recommendations. Int J Ther Massage Bodyw. 2009;2(4):3–8.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Langevin HM, Stevens-Tuttle D, Fox JR, Badger GJ, Bouffard NA, Krag MH, Wu J, Henry SM. Ultrasound evidence of altered lumbar connective tissue structure in human subjects with chronic low back pain. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2009;10:151.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Langevin HM, Fox JR, Koptiuch C, Badger GJ, Greenan- Naumann AC, Bouffard NA, Konofagou EE, Lee WN, Triano JJ, Henry SM. Reduced thoracolumbar fascia shear strain in human chronic low back pain. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011;12:203.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lemound J, Stoetzer M, Kokemüller H, Schumann P, Gellrich NC. Modified technique for rehabilitation of facial paralysis using autogenous fascia lata grafts. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2015;73(1):176–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Li J, Radice GL. A new perspective on intercalated disc organization: implications for heart disease. Dermatol Res Pract. 2010;2010:207835.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Li J, Swope D, Raess N, Cheng L, Muller EJ, Radice GL. Cardiac tissue-restricted deletion of plakoglobin results in progressive cardiomyopathy and activation of {beta}-catenin signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31(6):1134–44.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Li H, Lu S, Liu H, Ge J, Zhang H. Scanning electron microscope evidence of telocytes in vasculature. J Cell Mol Med. 2014;18(7):1486–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Manetti M, Rosa I, Messerini L, Guiducci S, Matucci-Cerinic M, Ibba-Manneschi L. A loss of telocytes accompanies fibrosis of multiple organs in systemic sclerosis. J Cell Mol Med. 2014;18(2):253–62.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    McEuen AR, Walls AF. Purification and characterization of mast cell tryptase and chymase from human tissues. Methods Mol Med. 2008;138:299–317.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nicolescu MI, Popescu LM. Telocytes in the interstitium of human exocrine pancreas: ultrastructural evidence. Pancreas. 2012;41(6):949–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nicolescu MI, Bucur A, Dinca O, Rusu MC, Popescu LM. Telocytes in parotid glands. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2012;295(3):378–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Palatinus JA, Rhett JM, Gourdie RG. Translational lessons from scarless healing of cutaneous wounds and regenerative repair of the myocardium. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;48(3):550–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Popescu LM, Faussone-Pellegrini MS. Telocytes – a case of serendipity: the winding way from Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC), via Interstitial Cajal-Like Cells (ICLC) to telocytes. J Cell Mol Med. 2010;14:729–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Popescu LM. The tandem: telocytes – stem cells. Int J Biol Biomed Eng. 2011;2:83–92.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Popescu LM, Gherghiceanu M, Suciu LC, Manole CG, Hinescu ME. Telocytes and putative stem cells in the lungs: electron microscopy, electron tomography and laser scanning microscopy. Cell Tissue Res. 2011;345(3):391–403.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Popescu LM, Manole E, Serboiu CS, Manole CG, Suciu LC, Gherghiceanu M, Popescu BO. Identification of telocytes in skeletal muscle interstitium: implication for muscle regeneration. J Cell Mol Med. 2011;15(6):1379–13792.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Raju H, Alberg C, Sagoo GS, Burton H, Behr ER. Inherited cardiomyopathies. BMJ. 2011;343:d6966.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rao KN, Brown MA. Mast cells: multifaceted immune cells with diverse roles in health and disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1143:83–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Roatesi I, Radu BM, Cretoiu D, Cretoiu SM. Uterine telocytes: a review of current knowledge. Biol Reprod. 2015;93(1):10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rusu MC, Jianu AM, Mirancea N, Didilescu AC, Mănoiu VS, Păduraru D. Tracheal telocytes. J Cell Mol Med. 2012;16(2):401–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rusu MC, Pop F, Hostiuc S, Curca GC, Jianu AM, Paduraru D. Telocytes form networks in normal cardiac tissues. Histol Histopathol. 2012;27(6):807–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Schleip R. Fascial plasticity-a new neurobiological explanation part 1. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2003;7(1):11–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Schleip R, Klingler W, Lehmann-Horn F. Active fascial contractility: fascia may be able to contract in a smooth muscle-like manner and thereby influence musculoskeletal dynamics. Med Hypotheses. 2005;65(2):273–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Schleip R, Findley TW, Chaitow L, Huijing P. Fascia – the tensional network of the human body: the science and clinical applications in manual and movement therapy. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2012.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Schleip R, Jäger H, Klingler W. What is ‘fascia’? A review of different nomenclatures. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2012;16(4):496–502.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Schuenke MD, Vleeming A, Van Hoof T, Willard FH. A description of the lumbar interfascial triangle and its relation with the lateral raphe: anatomical constituents of load transfer through the lateral margin of the thoracolumbar fascia. J Anat. 2012;221(6):568–76.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sheikh F, Ross RS, Chen J. Cell-cell connection to cardiac disease. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2009;19(6):182–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sher I, Umans H, Downie SA, Tobin K, Arora R, Olson TR. Proximal iliotibial band syndrome: what is it and where is it? Skeletal Radiol. 2011;40(12):1553–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Smythies J, Edelstein L. Telocytes, exosomes, gap junctions and the cytoskeleton: the makings of a primitive nervous system? Front Cell Neurosci. 2013;7:278–81.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Stecco C, Hammert WC. Functional atlas of the human fascial system. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier; 2015.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Stecco C, Pavan PG, Porzionato A, Macchi V, Lancerotto L, Carniel EL, Natali AN, De Caro R. Mechanics of crural fascia: from anatomy to constitutive modelling. Surg Radiol Anat. 2009;31(7):523–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Stecco C, Pavan P, Pachera P, De Caro R, Natali A. Investigation of the mechanical properties of the human crural fascia and their possible clinical implications. Surg Radiol Anat. 2014;36(1):25–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Suciu L, Popescu LM, Gherghiceanu M, Regalia T, Nicolescu MI, Hinescu ME, Faussone-Pellegrini MS. Telocytes in human term placenta: morphology and phenotype. Cells Tissues Organs. 2010;192(5):325–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tomasek JJ, Gabbiani G, Hinz B, Chaponnier C, Brown RA. Myofibroblasts and mechano-regulation of connective tissue remodelling. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2002;3(5):349–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Vannucchi MG, Traini C, Manetti M, Ibba-Manneschi L, Faussone-Pellegrini MS. Telocytes express PDGFRα in the human gastrointestinal tract. J Cell Mol Med. 2013;17(9):1099–108.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Warwick RM, Brubacer SA. Tissue and cell clinical use: an essential guide. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wearing SC, Schleip R, Chaitow L, Klingler W, Findley T editors. Fascia research IV basic science and implications for conventional and complementary health care. Kiener Press, Munich. (In Press) 2015.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Yang Y, Sun W, Wu SM, Xiao J, Kong X. Telocytes in human heart valves. J Cell Mol Med. 2014;18(5):759–65.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Yang J, Chi C, Liu Z, Yang G, Shen ZJ, Yang XJ. Ultrastructure damage of oviduct telocytes in rat model of acute salpingitis. J Cell Mol Med. 2015;19(7):1720–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zandi AR. Harvesting fascia lata for brow suspension procedure via two small skin incisions. JRMS. 2006;11(6):396–9.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Zheng Y, Zhu T, Lin M, Wu D, Wang X. Telocytes in the urinary system. J Transl Med. 2012;10:188.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zheng Y, Cretoiu D, Yan G, Cretoiu SM, Popescu LM, Fang H, Wang X. Protein profiling of human lung telocytes and microvascular endothelial cells using iTRAQ quantitative proteomics. J Cell Mol Med. 2014;18(6):1035–59.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joanna Dawidowicz
    • 1
  • Natalia Matysiak
    • 2
  • Sylwia Szotek
    • 3
  • Krzysztof Maksymowicz
    • 4
  1. 1.Veterinary Clinic “Brynów”KatowicePoland
  2. 2.Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in ZabrzeMedical University of SilesiaZabrzePoland
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical Engineering, Mechatronics and Theory of Mechanisms, Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringWrocław University of Science and TechnologyWrocławPoland
  4. 4.Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of MedicineWroclaw Medical UniversityWrocławPoland

Personalised recommendations