Clinical Anatomy for Botulinum Toxin Injection

  • Hee-Jin Kim
  • Kyle K. Seo
  • Hong-Ki Lee
  • Jisoo Kim


Kyle K. Seo, MD, PhD & Hee-Jin Kim, DDS, PhD (Illustrated by Kwan-Hyun Youn)

Suggested Reading

Muscles of the Face and Neck

  1. 1.
    Bae JH, Choi DY, Lee JG, Tansatit T, Kim HJ. The risorius muscle: anatomic considerations with reference to botulinum neurotoxin injection for masseteric hypertrophy. Dermatol Surg. 2014;40(12):1334–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bae JH, Lee JH, Youn KH, Hur MS, Hu KS, Tansatit T, Kim HJ. Surgical consideration of the anatomic origin of the risorius in relation to facial planes. Aesthet Surg. 2014;34:JNP43–9.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Choi DY, Kim JS, Youn KH, Hur MS, Kim JS, Hu KS, Kim HJ. Clinical anatomic considerations of the zygomaticus minor muscle based on the morphology and insertion pattern. Dermatol Surg. 2014;40(8):858–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Choi YJ, Kim JS, Gil YC, Phetudom T, Kim HJ, Tansatit T, Hu KS. Anatomic considerations regarding the location and boundary of the depressor anguli oris muscle with reference to botulinum toxin injection. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;134(5):917–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hu KS, Jin GC, Youn KH, Kwak HH, Koh KS, Fontaine C, Kim HJ. An anatomic study of the bifid zygomaticus major muscle. J Craniofac Surg. 2008;19(2):534–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hu KS, Kim ST, Hur MS, Park JH, Song WC, Koh KS, Kim HJ. Topography of the masseter muscle in relation to treatment with botulinum toxin type A. Oral Surg Oral Med O. 2010;110(2):167–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hur MS, Hu KS, Cho JY, Kwak HH, Song WC, Koh KS, Lorente M, Kim HJ. Topography and location of the depressor anguli oris muscle with a reference to the mental foramen. Surg Radiol Anat. 2008;30(5):403–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hur MS, Hu KS, Kwak HH, Lee KS, Kim HJ. Inferior bundle (fourth band) of the buccinators and the incisivus labii inferioris muscle. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22(1):289–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hur MS, Hu KS, Park JT, Youn KH, Kim HJ. New anatomical insight of the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi and the transverse part of the nasalis. Surg Radiol Anat. 2010;32(8):753–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hur MS, Hu KS, Youn KH, Song WC, Abe S, Kim HJ. New anatomical profile of the nasal musculature: dilator naris vestibularis, dilator naris anterior, and alar part of the nasalis. Clin Anat. 2011;24(2):162–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hur MS, Kim HJ, Choi BY, Hu KS, Kim HJ, Lee KS. Morphology of the mentalis muscle and its relationship with the orbicularis oris and incisivus labii inferioris muscles. J Craniofac Surg. 2013;24(2):602–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hur MS, Youn KH, Hu KS, Song WC, Koh KS, Fontaine C, Kim HJ. New anatomic considerations on the levator labii superioris related with the nasal ala. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21(1):258–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hwang WS, Hur MS, Hu KS, Song WC, Koh KS, Baik HS, Kim ST, Kim HJ, Lee KJ. Surface anatomy of the lip elevator muscles for the treatment of gummy smile using botulinum toxin. Angle Orthod. 2009;79(1):70–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim HJ, Hu KS, Kang MK, Hwang K, Chung IH. Decussation patterns of the platysma in Koreans. Br J Plast Surg. 2001;54(5):400–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim HS, Pae C, Bae JH, Hu KS, Chang BM, Tansatit T, Kim HJ. An anatomical study of the risorius in Asians and its insertion at the modiolus. Surg Radiol Anat. 2014;37(2):147–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee JY, Kim JN, Kim SH, Choi HG, Hu KS, Kim HJ, Song WC, Koh KS. Anatomical verification and designation of the superficial layer of the temporalis muscle. Clin Anat. 2012;25(2):176–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee JY, Kim JN, Yoo JY, Hu KS, Kim HJ, Song WC, Koh KS. Topographic anatomy of the masseter muscle focusing on the tendinous digitation. Clin Anat. 2012;25(7):889–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Park JT, Youn KH, Hu KS, Kim HJ. Medial muscular band of the orbicularis oculi muscle. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23(1):195–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Park JT, Youn KH, Hur MS, Hu KS, Kim HJ, Kim HJ. Malaris muscle, the lateral muscular band of orbicularis oculi muscle. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22(2):659–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shim KS, Hu KS, Kwak HH, Youn KH, Koh KS, Fontaine C, Kim HJ. An anatomy of the insertion of the zygomaticus major muscle in human focused on the muscle arrangement at the mouth corner. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121(2):466–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yang HM, Kim HJ. Anatomical study of the corrugator supercilii muscle and its clinical implication with botulinum toxin A injection. Surg Radiol Anat. 2013;35(9):817–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Youn KH, Park JT, Park DS, Koh KS, Kim HJ, Paik DJ. Morphology of the zygomaticus minor and its relationship with the orbicularis oculi muscle. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23(2):546–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yu SK, Lee MH, Kim HS, Park JT, Kim HJ, Kim HJ. Histomorphologic approach for the modiolus with reference to reconstructive and aesthetic surgery. J Craniofac Surg. 2013;24(4):1414–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Peripheral Nerves of the Face and Neck

  1. 24.
    Kim DH, Hong HS, Won SY, Kim HJ, Hu KS, Choi JH, Kim HJ. Intramuscular nerve distribution of the masseter muscle for botulinum toxin injection. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21(2):588–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 25.
    Kwak HH, Ko SJ, Jung HS, Park HD, Chung IH, Kim HJ. Topographic anatomy of the deep temporal nerves, with references to the superior head of lateral pterygoid. Surg Radiol Anat. 2003;25(5–6):393–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 26.
    Kwak HH, Park HD, Youn KH, Hu KS, Koh KS, Han SH, Kim HJ. Branching patterns of the facial nerve and its communication with the auriculotemporal nerve. Surg Radiol Anat. 2004;26(6):494–500.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 27.
    Won SY, Kim DH, Yang HM, Park JT, Kwak HH, Hu KS, Kim HJ. Clinical and anatomical approach using Sihler’s staining technique (whole mount nerve stain). Anat Cell Biol. 2011;44(1):1–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 28.
    Yang HM, Won SY, Kim HJ, Hu KS. Sihler staining study of anastomosis between the facial and trigeminal nerves in the ocular area and its clinical implications. Muscle Nerve. 2013;48(4):545–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar


  1. 29.
    Carruthers ACJ. Botulinum toxin. Elsevier Science Health Science div. 2013;3:52–8.Google Scholar
  2. 30.
    Dessy LA, Mazzocchi M, Rubino C, Mazzarello V, Spissu N, Scuderi N. An objective assessment of botulinum toxin A effect on superficial skin texture. Ann Plast Surg. 2007;58(5):469–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 31.
    Flynn TC, Carruthers JA, Carruthers JA. Botulinum-A toxin treatment of the lower eyelid improves infraorbital rhytides and widens the eye. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27(8):703–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 32.
    Frankel AS, Kamer FM. Chemical browlift. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;124(3):321–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 33.
    Huilgol SC, Carruthers A, Carruthers JD. Raising eyebrows with botulinum toxin. Dermatol Surg. 1999;25(5):373–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 34.
    Kyle K. Seo: Botulinum treatment. Seoul Medical Publishing Co. 2014;2:182–3.Google Scholar
  7. 35.
    Xu JA, Yuasa K, Yoshiura K, Kanda S. Quantitative analysis of masticatory muscles using computed tomography. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 1994;23(3):|154–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hee-Jin Kim
    • 1
  • Kyle K. Seo
    • 2
  • Hong-Ki Lee
    • 3
  • Jisoo Kim
    • 4
  1. 1.Yonsei University College of DentistrySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Modelo ClinicSeoulRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Image Plastic Surgery ClinicSeoulRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Dr. Youth ClinicSeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations