Advertisement

Generating Respect for the Law by Non-State Armed Groups: The ICRC’s Role and Activities

  • Anne QuintinEmail author
  • Marie-Louise Tougas
Chapter

Abstract

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) has a long experience working with non-State armed groups (NSAGs) in various contexts with the aim of generating respect for international humanitarian law (IHL) by those groups. This chapter discusses the legal bases for the ICRC’s work in that respect, concrete ways to integrate IHL into NSAGs’ practice, as well as recent developments. Some of the challenges faced by the ICRC in its work with NSAGs, such as how to take into account NSAGs practice into IHL clarification and development processes, and the risk of criminalizing humanitarian action and IHL dissemination activities with NSAGs by overbroad anti-terrorist legislation will also be tackled.

Keywords

ICRC ICRC’s mandate Non-State Armed groups International humanitarian law Dissemination Education Training Doctrine Sanction Anti-terrorist legislation Criminalization of humanitarian action 

References

  1. 26th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (1995) International Humanitarian Law: From Law to Action Report on the Follow-up to the International Conference for the Protection of War Victims, Report 95/C.I/2/2. https://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/resolution/26-international-conference-resolution-1-1995.htm. Accessed 7 October 2017.
  2. 31st International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (2011) Strengthening legal protection for victims of armed conflicts, Resolution 1, 31IC/11/R1.Google Scholar
  3. 32nd International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (2015) Strengthening compliance with international humanitarian law, Resolution 2, 32C/15/R2.Google Scholar
  4. Acquaviva G (2010) The Perils of Teaching and Practising International Law. Journal of International Criminal Justice 8:1001–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Address by General Jean-René Bachelet (2008) International Review of the Red Cross 870:211–219.Google Scholar
  6. Al-Dawoody A (2017) IHL and Islam: An overview. http://blogs.icrc.org/law-and-policy/2017/03/14/ihl-islam-overview/. Accessed 6 October 2017.
  7. Almeghari R (2007) Red Cross training Gaza fighters in international humanitarian law. The Electronic Intifada. https://electronicintifada.net/content/red-cross-training-gaza-fighters-international-humanitarian-law/7239. Accessed 6 October 2017.
  8. Assembly of States Parties (2002) Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the ICC, Official Records ICC-ASP/1/3.Google Scholar
  9. Bangerter O (2011) Reasons why armed groups choose to respect international humanitarian law or not. International Review of the Red Cross 882:353–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bangerter O (2012) Internal Control. Codes of Conduct within Insurgent Armed Groups. Small Arms Survey, Occasional Paper 31. http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/B-Occasional-papers/SAS-OP31-internal-control.pdf. Accessed 6 October 2017.
  11. Beerli C (2016) Modern Conflict: Address by the ICRC’s vice-president to SWIRMO. http://blogs.icrc.org/law-and-policy/2016/10/27/modern-conflict-swirmo-2016/. Accessed 6 October 2017.
  12. Bugnion F (1995) Red Cross Law. International Review of the Red Cross 308. https://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/article/other/57jmr8.htm. Accessed 5 October 2017.
  13. Bugnion F (2003) The International Committee of the Red Cross and the Protection of War Victims. ICRC/Macmillan, Geneva.Google Scholar
  14. Durand R (2012) Henry Dunant 1828–1910, 2nd edn. Editions Slatkine, Geneva.Google Scholar
  15. Durham H (2018) Strengthening Compliance with IHL: Disappointment and hope. https://blogs.icrc.org/law-and-policy/2018/12/14/strengthening-compliance-with-ihl-disappointment-and-hope/. Accessed 14 October 2019.
  16. European Parliament (2017) Directive (EU) 2017/541 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2017 on combating terrorism and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA and amending Council Decision 2005/671/JHA.Google Scholar
  17. Geneva Call (n.d.) https://genevacall.org. Accessed 6 October 2017.
  18. Geneva Call (n.d.) Their Words. Directory of Armed Non-State Actors Humanitarian Commitments, Geneva Call. http://theirwords.org/pages/home. Accessed 6 October 2017.
  19. Giladi R, Ratner S (2015) The Role of the International Committee of the Red Cross. In: Clapham A, Gaeta P, Sassòli M (eds) The 1949 Geneva Conventions. A Commentary. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 525–547.Google Scholar
  20. Health Care in Danger (n.d.) It’s a Matter of Life and Death. http://healthcareindanger.org/hcid-project/. Accessed 13 October 2017.
  21. Heffes E, Kotlik M (2014) Special agreements as a means of enhancing compliance with IHL in non-international armed conflicts: An inquiry into the governing legal regime. International Review of the Red Cross 895–896:1195–1224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Henckaerts J-M (2005) Study on customary international humanitarian law: A contribution to the understanding and respect for the rule of law in armed conflict. International Review of the Red Cross 857:175–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur (2005) Report to the Secretary-General, Geneva, 25 January 2005. http://www.un.org/News/dh/sudan/com_inq_darfur.pdf. Accessed 18 October 2017.
  24. International Committee of the Red Cross. Study on Customary IHL. https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/customary-ihl/eng/docs/home. Accessed 17 October 2017.
  25. International Committee of the Red Cross. IHL in Action. Respect of the Law on the Battlefield. Implementation Mechanisms. https://ihl-in-action.icrc.org/topic/Implementation%20mechanisms. Accessed 12 October 2017.
  26. International Committee of the Red Cross (2004) The Roots of Behaviour in War: Understanding and Preventing IHL Violations. ICRC, Geneva.Google Scholar
  27. International Committee of the Red Cross (2005) The conflict in Upper Silesia (1921). https://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/68uhpp.htm. Accessed 5 October 2017.
  28. International Committee of the Red Cross (2007) Integrating the Law. ICRC, Geneva. https://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/publication/p0900.htm. Accessed 6 October 2017.
  29. International Committee of the Red Cross (2008a) Annual Report 2007. https://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/annual-report/icrc-annual-report-2007.htm. Accessed 12 October 2017.
  30. International Committee of the Red Cross (2008b) Increasing Respect for International Humanitarian Law in Non-international Armed Conflicts. ICRC, Geneva.Google Scholar
  31. International Committee of the Red Cross (2009a) ICRC: Its Mission and Work. ICRC, Geneva. https://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/other/icrc_002_0963.pdf. Accessed 12 October 2017.
  32. International Committee of the Red Cross (2009b) Under the protection of the palm: wars of dignity in the Pacific. https://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/other/wars-of-dignity-pacific-2009.pdf. Accessed 6 October 2017.
  33. International Committee of the Red Cross (2010) Prevention Policy. ICRC, Geneva.Google Scholar
  34. International Committee of the Red Cross (2011a) International Humanitarian Law and the challenges of contemporary armed conflicts. Report presented at the 31st International Conference, Geneva, October 2011, 31IC/11/5.1.2.Google Scholar
  35. International Committee of the Red Cross (2011b) A collection of codes of conduct issued by armed groups. International Review of the Red Cross 882:483–501.Google Scholar
  36. International Committee of the Red Cross (2015a) Annual Report 2014 https://www.icrc.org/en/document/ICRC-annual-report-2014. Accessed 12 October 2017.
  37. International Committee of the Red Cross (2015b) International humanitarian law and the challenges of contemporary armed conflicts. Report presented at the 32nd International Conference, Geneva, December 2015, 32IC/15/11.Google Scholar
  38. International Committee of the Red Cross (2015c) Safeguarding the Provision of Health Care: Operational Practices and Relevant International Humanitarian Law Concerning Armed Groups. ICRC, Geneva.Google Scholar
  39. International Committee of the Red Cross (2015d) Strengthening international humanitarian law protecting persons deprived of their liberty. Concluding report, Geneva, October 2015, 32IC/15/19.1.Google Scholar
  40. International Committee of the Red Cross (2016a) Roots of Behaviour in War Revisited, Conference Panel. https://www.icrc.org/en/document/roots-behaviour-war-revisited-0. Accessed 7 October 2017.
  41. International Committee of the Red Cross (2016b) Annual Report 2015. https://www.icrc.org/en/document/annual-report-2015-icrc. Accessed 12 October 2017.
  42. International Committee of the Red Cross (2016c) Commentary on the First Geneva Convention. https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/ihl/full/GCI-commentary. Accessed 6 October 2017.
  43. International Committee of the Red Cross (2016d) ICRC in the Philippines’ facts and figures (January–May 2016). https://www.icrc.org/en/document/philippines-our-humanitarian-action-in-the-philippines-jan-to-may-2016. Accessed 12 October 2017.
  44. International Committee of the Red Cross (2017) Annual Report 2016. https://www.icrc.org/en/document/annual-report-2016. Accessed 12 October 2017.
  45. International Committee of the Red Cross (2018) The Roots of Restraint in War. ICRC, Geneva.Google Scholar
  46. International Committee of the Red Cross and Swiss government (2015a) Strengthening compliance with international humanitarian law. Concluding report, Geneva, October 2015, 32IC/15/19.2.Google Scholar
  47. International Committee of the Red Cross and Swiss government (2015b) Chair’s conclusions, Fourth Meeting of States on Strengthening Compliance with International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Geneva, April 2015.Google Scholar
  48. International Committee of the Red Cross and Swiss government (2013) Chair’s conclusions, Second Meeting of States on Strengthening Compliance with International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Geneva, June 2013.Google Scholar
  49. International Committee of the Red Cross and Swiss government (2014) Preparatory Discussion in view of the Fourth Meeting of States on Strengthening Compliance with IHL, Background document, Geneva, October 2014.Google Scholar
  50. International Committee of the Red Cross (2014), Internment in Armed Conflict: Basic Rules and Challenges, Opinion Paper. https://www.icrc.org/en/document/internment-armed-conflict-basic-rules-and-challenges. Accessed 15 March 2019.
  51. Interview with Ali Ahmad Jalali (2011) International Review of the Red Cross 882:279–286.Google Scholar
  52. La Rosa A-M, Wuerzner C (2008) Armed groups, sanctions and the implementation of international humanitarian law. International Review of the Red Cross 870:327–341.Google Scholar
  53. Maurer P (2016) International Conference on Islam and IHL — Statement by the ICRC. https://www.icrc.org/en/document/speech-icrc-president-international-conference-islam-and-ihl. Accessed 12 October 2017.
  54. Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals (2016) Rules of Procedure and Evidence, MICT/1/Rev.2.Google Scholar
  55. Melzer N (2016) International Humanitarian Law: A comprehensive introduction. ICRC, Geneva.Google Scholar
  56. Munir M (2011) The Layha for the Mujahideen: an analysis of the code of conduct for the Taliban fighters under Islamic law. Annex. International Review of the Red Cross 881:103–120.Google Scholar
  57. NATO Parliamentary Assembly, Committee on the Civil Dimension of Security (2016) General Report, Enhancing Euro-Atlantic Counter-Terrorism Capabilities and Cooperation, doc. 157 CDS 16 E bis, 20 November 2016.Google Scholar
  58. Nishat N (2015) The Right of Initiative of the ICRC and Other Impartial Humanitarian Bodies. In: Clapham A, Gaeta P, Sassòli M (eds) The 1949 Geneva Conventions. A Commentary. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 495–508.Google Scholar
  59. Palmieri D (2012) An institution standing the test of time? A review of 150 years of the history of the International Committee of the Red Cross. International Review of the Red Cross 888:1273–1298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pejic J (2016) Strengthening Compliance with IHL: the ICRC-Swiss Initiative. International Review of the Red Cross 98(1):315–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Provost R (2011) The move to substantive equality in international humanitarian law: a rejoinder to Marco Sassòli and Yuval Shany. International Review of the Red Cross 882:437–442.Google Scholar
  62. Rudoren J, al Waheidiaug M (2015) Red Cross Offers Workshops in International Law to Hamas. The New York Times, 15 August 2015. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/16/world/middleeast/red-cross-offers-workshops-in-international-law-to-hamas.html. Accessed 6 October 2017.
  63. Sassòli M (2011) Introducing a sliding-scale of obligations to address the fundamental inequality between armed groups and states? International Review of the Red Cross 882:426–431.Google Scholar
  64. Sassòli M, Bouvier A, Quintin A (n.d.) Former Yugoslavia Special Agreements between the Parties to the Conflicts. https://casebook.icrc.org/case-study/former-yugoslavia-special-agreements-between-parties-conflicts. Accessed 6 October 2017.
  65. Somer J (2007) Jungle justice: passing sentence on the equality of belligerents in non-international armed conflict. International Review of the Red Cross 867:655–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Special Tribunal for Lebanon (2017) Rules of Procedure and Evidence, STL-BD-2009-01-Rev.9.Google Scholar
  67. Terry F (2011) The International Committee of the Red Cross in Afghanistan: reasserting the neutrality of humanitarian action. International Review of the Red Cross 881:173–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Thorne K (2006) Terrorist designation in the European Union. https://www.hdcentre.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/TerroristdesignationintheEuropeanUnion-June-2006.pdf. Accessed 9 October 2017.
  69. UN Security Council (2001) UN Doc. S/RES/1373 (2001).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© T.M.C. Asser Press and the authors 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ICRCGenevaSwitzerland
  2. 2.UNSCMontevideoUruguay

Personalised recommendations