Advertisement

Inherent Limitations of the Vertical System of Enforcement

  • Christopher SolerEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter studies the grounds which States may invoke to refuse to surrender individuals under the ICC Statute. States can challenge the admissibility of a case before the ICC which undertakes a two-pronged appraisal of complementarity, namely the State action assessment and the genuineness assessment. The latter test need not be undertaken if there subsists State inaction. Inactivity and gravity generate admissibility. The genuineness assessment necessitates an assessment of the State’s conduct with a human rights lens. Various permutations are examined especially in the light of the Saif Al-Islam conundrum and in the context of the ‘same conduct’ requirement with a special focus on the proceedings against Simone Gbagbo. The three facets of ne bis in idem, namely the res judicata facet, the concurrence facet and the complementarity facet, are analysed. Other grounds for refusal include the postponement of the execution of a request for surrender, competing requests and conflicting obligations, and specific requirements under national law. In terms of the latter, emphasis is placed on the doctrine of abuse of process in a plural-State hypothetical scenario. Likewise, such scenario sheds a light on the application of diplomatic privileges and immunities, both personal and functional. Three main arguments are deployed to make a case against the latter type of immunities where proceedings before the ICC are concerned. The tension between Articles 27 and 98 is exposed. The extent to which the rule of speciality, the only traditional extradition-based ground for refusal in the ICC Statute, can be invoked, is examined.

Keywords

Grounds for refusal Vertical system of enforcement Competing requests Same case State obligations Execution of a request Independence Impartiality Flagrant human rights violation Postponement Cooperation Challenge of admissibility Genuine willingness or ability Investigate and prosecute Ne bis in idem Abuse of process Diplomatic privileges and immunities Speciality Effective investigation Forum conveniens National procedural law Arrest Surrender Complementarity Gravity threshold Indirect waiver argument Customary law argument Immunities rationae materiae Immunities rationae personae Due process Same conduct Investigative steps Inadmissibility Bona fide trial Substantially collapsed Triggering mechanism Official acts Bilateral immunity agreements Ultra vires acts Flagrant denial of justice Non-cooperation Egregious violation Mala fide prosecution Genuineness assessment State action assessment Inaction Fair trial assessment Res judicata facet Complementarity facet Concurrence facet Constitutive elements Mise en scène Shielding Amnesty Pardon Same person Jurisdictional pointsman Parole Interests of justice Sham trials Simone Gbagbo Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi 

References

  1. Abass A (2005) The Competence of the Security Council to Terminate the Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court. TILJ 40(2):263–297Google Scholar
  2. Agreement between all UN Member States and Sierra Leone (2002) Agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Sierra Leone on the Establishment of a Special Court for Sierra LeoneGoogle Scholar
  3. Agreement on Privileges and Immunities of the ICC (2002) Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Criminal Court, ICC/ASP/1/3Google Scholar
  4. Aizman DW (2016) Aizman Law Firm, Criminal Defence Practice. http://www.lacriminaldefensepartners.com/sex-crimes/rape-defense/#.Vc80RS4eOuo. Accessed 12 January 2016
  5. Akande D (2004) International Law Immunities and the International Criminal Court. AJIL 98(3):407–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Akande D (2008) The Bashir Indictment: Are Serving Heads of State Immune from International Criminal Court Prosecution. Oxford Transitional Justice Research Working Paper Series. https://www.law.ox.ac.uk/sites/files/oxlaw/akande1.pdf. Accessed 1 June 2012
  7. Akande D (2009) The Legal Nature of Security Council Referrals to the ICC and its Impact on Al Bashir’s Immunities. JICJ 7(2):333–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Akande D (2011) ICC Issues Detailed Decision on Bashir’s Immunity (…At Long Last…) But Gets the Law Wrong, EJIL Talk! http://www.ejiltalk.org/icc-issues-detailed-decision-on-bashir%E2%80%99s-immunity-at-long-last-but-gets-the-law-wrong/. Accessed 11 August 2013
  9. Akande D (2012a) The Effect of Security Council Resolutions and Domestic Proceedings on State Obligations to Cooperate with the International Criminal Court. JICJ 10(2):299–324Google Scholar
  10. Akande D (2012b) Problems with Immunities and the ICC. In: Wilmshurst E, Akande D, Bekou O, Powles S (eds) International Law Meeting Summary, Milestones in International Criminal Justice: Recent Judgments and New Developments, Chatham House, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Akande D, de Souza Dias T (2018) Does the ICC Statute Remove Immunities of State Officials in National Proceedings? Some Observations From the Drafting History of Article 27(2) of the Rome Statute. EJIL:Talk! https://www.ejiltalk.org/does-the-icc-statute-remove-immunities-of-state-officials-in-national-proceedings-some-observations-from-the-drafting-history-of-article-272-of-the-rome-statute/. Accessed 24 December 2018
  12. Akande D, Shah S (2011) Immunities of State Officials, International Crimes, and Foreign Domestic Courts. EJIL 21(4):815–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Akhavan P (2016) Complementarity Conundrums: The ICC Clock in Transitional Times. JICJ 14(5):1043–1059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Aksenova M (2017) Human Rights at the International Criminal Court: Testing the Limits of Judicial Discretion. NJIL 86(1):68–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ambach P (2015) A Look Towards the Future – The ICC and “Lessons Learnt”. In: Stahn C (ed) The Law and Practice of the International Criminal Court. OUP, Oxford, pp. 1277–1295Google Scholar
  16. Ambos K (2010) The Colombian Peace Process and the Principle of Complementarity of the International Criminal Court: An Inductive Situation-Based Approach. Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ambos K, Stegmiller I (2012) Prosecuting International Crimes at the International Criminal Court: Is There a Coherent and Comprehensive Prosecution Strategy? CLSC 58(4):391–413Google Scholar
  18. American Servicemembers’ Protection Act (2002) Title II of Public Law 107-206Google Scholar
  19. Amsterdam Treaty (1997) Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related actsGoogle Scholar
  20. Arbour L, Bergsmo M (1999) Conspicuous Absence of Jurisdictional Overreach. In: von Hebel HAM, Lammers JG, Schuking J (eds) Reflections on the International Criminal Court. Asser Press, The Hague, pp. 129–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Arsanjani MH (1999) Reflections on the Jurisdiction and Trigger Mechanism of the International Criminal Court. In: von Hebel HAM, Lammers JG, Schuking J (eds) Reflections on the International Criminal Court. Asser Press, The HagueCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. ASP (2012) Resolution ICC-ASP/11/Res.5, Doc. ICC/ASP/11/20Google Scholar
  23. Bantekas I (2010) International Criminal Law. HP, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  24. Barnes GP (2011) The International Criminal Court’s Ineffective Enforcement Mechanisms: The Indictment of President Omar Al Bashir. FILJ 34(6):1584–1619Google Scholar
  25. Bassiouni MC, Manikas P (1996) The Law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. TP, Irvington-on-Hudson, NYGoogle Scholar
  26. Behren H-J (2002) Protection of National Security Information in the ICC: A Guide to Article 72 of the Rome Statute. In: Roggemann H, Šarcevic P (eds) National Security and International Criminal Justice. KLI, The Hague/London/NY, pp. 115–126Google Scholar
  27. Bekou O (2009) A Case for Review of Article 88, ICC Statute: Strengthening A Forgotten Provision. NCLR 12(3):468–483Google Scholar
  28. Belsky AC, Merva M, Roht-Arriaza N (1989) Implied Waiver under the FSIA: A Proposed Exception to Immunity for Violations of Peremptory Norms of International Law. CaLR 77(2):365–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Benzig M (2009) Article 98 (ICC St.) Agreements. In: Cassese A (ed) The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice. OUP, Oxford, pp. 252–253Google Scholar
  30. Bergsmo M (1998) The Jurisdictional Regime of the International Criminal Court (Part II, Articles 11–19). EJCCLCJ 6(4)29–47Google Scholar
  31. Bernard D (2011a) Ne Bis In Idem - Protector of Defendant’s Rights or Jurisdictional Pointsman? JICJ 9(4):863–880Google Scholar
  32. Bernard P (2011b) The Paradox of Institutional Conversion: The Evolution of Complementarity in the International Criminal Court. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science 1(19):203–216Google Scholar
  33. Bishop A (2013) Failure of Complementarity: The Future of the International Criminal Court Following the Libyan Admissibility Challenge. MnnJIL 22:388–421Google Scholar
  34. Bo M (2014) The Situation in Libya and the ICC’s Understanding of Complementarity in the Context of UNSC-Referred Cases. CLF, 25(3–4):505–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Bohlander M (2008) Ne Bis in Idem. In: Bassiouni MC (ed) International Criminal Law: International Enforcement, Vol. III, 3rd edn. MNP, Leiden/BostonGoogle Scholar
  36. Brighton C (2012) Avoiding Unwillingness: Addressing the Political Pitfalls Inherent in the Complementarity Regime of the International Criminal Court. ICLR 12(4):629–664Google Scholar
  37. Brody R (2000) The Case of Augusto Pinochet. In: Brody R, Ratner M (eds) The Pinochet Papers: The Case of Augusto Pinochet in Spain and Britain. KLI, Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands, pp. 7–22Google Scholar
  38. Buchan R, Johnsson C-EJ (2012) Reviewing Jurdi NN (2011) The International Criminal Court and National Courts: A Contentious Relationship. Ashgate, Farnham. In: ICLR 12(1):104–109Google Scholar
  39. Caligiuri A (2018) Governing International Cooperation in Criminal Matters: The Role of the Aut Dedere Aut Judicare Principle. ICLR 18(2):244–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Capital News (2013) From the ‘Ocampo Six’ to the ‘Bensouda Three. http://www.capitalfm.co.ke/news/2013/09/from-the-ocampo-six-to-bensouda-three/. Accessed 3 November 2015
  41. Carnero Rojo E (2005) The Role of Fair Trial Considerations in the Complementarity Regime of the International Criminal Court: From “No Peace Without Justice” to “No Peace with Victor’s Justice?” LJIL18(4):829–869Google Scholar
  42. Carter LE (2010) The Principle of Complementarity and the International Criminal Court: The Role of Ne Bis in Idem. SCJIL 8(1):165–198Google Scholar
  43. Cassese A (2008) International Criminal Law, 2nd edn. OUP, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  44. Čengić A (2010) Commentary: Habeas Corpus at the ICC: The Ways in Which a Person Detained by the ICC may Challenge his or her Detention – a Study of the Dyilo case. In: Klip A, Sluiter G (eds) Annotated Leading Cases of International Criminal Tribunals: The International Criminal Court: 2005–2007, Vol. 23. Intersentia, Cambridge, pp. 182–192Google Scholar
  45. Chalmers D, Hadjiemmanuil C, Monti G, Tomkins A (2006) European Union Law. CUP, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  46. Chet JT (2003) The Proliferation of Bilateral non-Surrender Agreements Among non-Ratifiers of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. AUILR 19(5):1115–1180Google Scholar
  47. Ciampi A (2002a) Other Forms of Cooperation. In: Cassese A, Gaeta P, Jones JRWD (eds) The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary, Vol. II. OUP, Oxford, pp. 1705–1747Google Scholar
  48. Ciampi A (2002b) The Obligation to Cooperate. In: Cassese A, Gaeta P, Jones JRWD (eds) The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary, Vol. II. OUP, Oxford, pp. 1607–1638Google Scholar
  49. Ciampi A (2008) State Cooperation with the International Criminal Court and Human Rights. In: Politi M, Gioia F (eds) The International Criminal Court and National Jurisdictions. Ashgate, Farnham, Surrey, UK pp. 103–111Google Scholar
  50. Ciampi A (2010) Commentary on State Cooperation. In: Klip A, Sluiter G (eds) Annotated Leading Cases of International Criminal Tribunals: The International Criminal Court: 2005–2007, Vol. 23. Intersentia, Cambridge, pp. 538–543Google Scholar
  51. CISA (1990) Convention Implementing the Schengen Agreement, 19 June 1990, [2000] OJ L239/19Google Scholar
  52. Cobain I (2018) ICC on Collision Course with US over Looming Afghan War Crimes Probe. Middle East Eye. https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/icc-collision-course-us-over-looming-afghanistan-war-crimes-probe-366131245. Accessed 11 November 2018
  53. Conway G (2003) Ne Bis In Idem in International Law. ICLR 3(3):217–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Council of the EU (2002) Conclusions on the ICC, 30 September 2002, CEU 12134/02. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/ICC34EN.pdf. Accessed 22 May 2016
  55. Cryer R (2002) Implementation of the International Criminal Court Statute in England and Wales. ICLQ 51(3):733–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Cryer R (2005) Prosecuting International Crimes: Selectivity and the International Criminal Law Regime. Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative Law, CUP, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  57. Cryer R (2009a) Means of Gathering Evidence and Arresting Suspects in Situations of States’ Failure to Cooperate. In: Cassese A (ed) The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice. OUP, Oxford, pp. 201–207Google Scholar
  58. Cryer R (2009b) Pinochet. In: Cassese A (ed) The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice. OUP, Oxford, pp. 872–875Google Scholar
  59. Cryer R, Bekou O (2007) International Crimes and International Criminal Court Cooperation in England and Wales. JICJ 5(2):441–459Google Scholar
  60. Cryer R, Friman H, Robinson D, Wilmshurst E (2011) An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure, 2nd edn. CUP, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  61. Cumes G (2006) Ad Hoc Tribunals, Reviewing Otham MC (2005) Accountability for International Humanitarian Law Violations: The Case of Rwanda and East Timor. In: CLF 17(3):345–353Google Scholar
  62. Currie RJ (2007) Abducted Fugitives Before the International Criminal Court: Problems and Prospects. CLF 18(3–4):349–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Daniels RN (2006) Non Bis in Idem and the International Criminal Court, BEP, Working Paper 1365. http://law.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6282&context=expresso. Accessed 28 October 2012
  64. Daqun L (2009) Double Jeopardy. In: Cassese A (ed) The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice. OUP, Oxford, pp. 304–305Google Scholar
  65. Day A (2004) Crimes Against Humanity as a Nexus of Individual and State Responsibility: Why the ICJ Got Belgium v. Congo Wrong. BJIL 22(3):489–512Google Scholar
  66. De Hoogh A (2009) The (lack of) Accountability of Indonesian Commanders and Political Authorities. In: Klip A, Sluiter G (eds) Annotated Leading Cases of International Criminal Tribunals: Timor Leste: The Special Panels for Serious Crimes 2003–2005, Vol. 16. Intersentia, Antwerp/Oxford/Portland, pp. 85–95Google Scholar
  67. de Souza Dias T (2018) The ‘Security Council Route’ to the Derogation from Personal Head of State Immunity in the Al Bashir Case: How Explicit Must Security Council Resolutions be? EJIL: Talk! https://www.ejiltalk.org/the-discussion-of-the-security-council-roots-to-the-derogation-from-personal-immunities-in-the-al-bashir-case-how-explicit-must-security-council-resolutions-be/. Accessed 19 November 2018
  68. Decision on the Prosecutor’s Application for Warrants of Arrest, Article 58, Situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Case No. ICC-01/04-01/07, Pre-Trial Chamber I, 10 February 2006. In: Klip A, Sluiter G (2010) (eds) Annotated Leading Cases of International Criminal Tribunals: The International Criminal Court 2005–2007, Vol. 23. Intersentia, Cambridge, pp. 53–84Google Scholar
  69. Decision on the Request by Human Rights Watch for Leave to Appear as Amicus Curiae in the Proceedings for Referral of the Indictment Against Fulgence Kayishema to Rwanda (Rules 11bis and 74 of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence), Prosecutor v. Fulgence Kayishema, Case no. ICTR-2001-67-I, Trial Chamber III, 8 November 2007. In: Klip A, Sluiter G (2010) (eds) Annotated Leading Cases of International Criminal Tribunals: The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda 2006–2007, Vol. 25. Intersentia, Cambridge, pp. 281–285Google Scholar
  70. Deen-Racsmany Z (2004) A New Passport to Impunity?: Non-Extradition of Naturalised Citizens versus Criminal Justice. JICJ 2(3):761–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Dembowski LC (2003) The International Criminal Court: Complementarity and its Consequences. In: Stromseth JE (eds) Accountability for Atrocities: National and International Responses. International and Comparative Law Series, TP, Irvington-on-Hudson, NY, pp. 135–169Google Scholar
  72. Deprez C (2012) Extent of Applicability of Human Rights Standards to Proceedings Before the International Criminal Court: On Possible Reductive Factors. ICLR 12(4):721–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Donohue JO, Rigney S (2012) The International Criminal Court Must Consider Fair Trial Concerns in Determining Libya’s Application to Prosecute Saif al-Islam Gaddafi Nationally. EJIL: Talk! http://www.ejiltalk.org/the-icc-must-consider-fair-trial-concerns-in-determining-libyas-application-to-prosecute-saif-al-islam-gaddafi-nationally/. Accessed 31 October 2014
  74. Drumbl MA (2008) Immunities and Exceptions. In: Bassiouni MC (ed) International Criminal Law: Multilateral and Bilateral Enforcement Mechanisms, Vol. II, 3rd edn. MNP, Leiden/Boston, pp. 231–242Google Scholar
  75. du Plessis M (2010) The International Criminal Court that Africa Wants. Institute for Security Studies, Pretoria, South Africa. http://www.issafrica.org/uploads/Mono172.pdf. Accessed 30 June 2012
  76. du Plessis M, Tladi D (2017) The ICC’s Immunity Debate – the Need for Finality. EJIL:Talk! https://www.ejiltalk.org/the-iccs-immunity-debate-the-need-for-finality/. Accessed 2 September 2017
  77. Eckelmans FC (2016) The Duch Case: The ECCC Supreme Court’s Chamber Review of Case 001. In: Meisenberg SM, Stegmiller I (eds) The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia: Assessing their Contribution to International Criminal Law. International Criminal Justice Series, Vol. 6, Asser Press, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  78. ECvHR (1950) European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental FreedomsGoogle Scholar
  79. El Zeidy M (2008) The Principle of Complementarity in International Criminal Law: Origin, Development and Practice. MNP, Leiden/BostonGoogle Scholar
  80. El Zeidy MM (2011) Admissibility in International Criminal Law. In: Schabas WA, Bernaz N (eds) Routledge Handbook of International Criminal Law. Routledge, T & F, Milton Park, Abingdon, UK, pp. 211–229Google Scholar
  81. Everett RO (2000) American Servicemembers and the International Criminal Court. In: Sewall SB, Kaysen C (eds) The United States and the International Criminal Court: National Security and International Law. American Academy of Arts and Sciences, RLP, Lanham, Maryland, pp. 137–151Google Scholar
  82. Fellmeth AX, Horwitz M (2009) Guide to Latin in International Law. OUP, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Fleck D (2003) Are Foreign Military Personnel Exempt from International Criminal Jurisdiction under Status of Forces Agreements? JICJ 1(3):651–670Google Scholar
  84. Frulli M (2009a) Personal Immunities and International Crimes. In: Cassese A (ed) The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice. OUP, Oxford, pp. 368–369Google Scholar
  85. Frulli M (2009b) Some Reflections on the Functional Immunity of State Officials. Symposium: International Law in Italian Courts. IYIL 19(1):91–99Google Scholar
  86. Gaeta P (2002) Official Capacity and Immunities. In: Cassese A, Gaeta P, Jones JRWD (eds) The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary, Vol. II. OUP, Oxford, pp. 975–1002Google Scholar
  87. Garner BA (2004) Black’s Law Dictionary, 8th edn. Thomson West, Saint Paul, Minnesota, USAGoogle Scholar
  88. Genocide Convention (1948) Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of GenocideGoogle Scholar
  89. Gillet M (2012) The Call of Justice: Obligations under the Genocide Convention to Cooperate with the International Criminal Court. CLF 23(1–3):63–96Google Scholar
  90. Gomien D, Harris DJ, Zwaak L (1996) Law and Practice of the European Convention on Human Rights and the European Social Charter. CoE Publishing, Strasbourg, FranceGoogle Scholar
  91. Gradoni L, Lewis DA, Megret F, Nouwen SMH, Ohlin JD, Reisinger-Coracani A, Zappalà S (2013) In: Sluiter G, Friman H, Linton S, Vasiliev S, Zappalà S (eds) International Criminal Procedure: Principles and Rules. OUP, Oxford, pp. 39–129Google Scholar
  92. Greppi E (2008) Inability to Investigate and Prosecute under Article 17. In: Politi M, Gioia F (eds) The International Criminal Court and National Jurisdictions. Ashgate, Farnham, Surrey, UK, pp. 63–70Google Scholar
  93. Grono N, de Courcy Wheeler A (2015) The Deterrent Effect of the ICC on the Commission of International Crimes by Government Leaders. In: Stahn C (ed) The Law and Practice of the International Criminal Court. OUP, Oxford, pp. 1225–1244Google Scholar
  94. Haffke CW (1994) The Torture Victim Protection Act: More Symbol than Substance. Emory Law Journal 43:1467–1517Google Scholar
  95. Harris DJ, O’Boyle M, Bates EP, Buckley CM (2009) Law of the European Convention on Human Rights, 2nd Edn. OUP, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  96. Hassanein AS (2017) Self-Referral of Situations to the International Criminal Court: Complementarity in Practice – Complementarity in Crisis. ICLR 17(1):107–134Google Scholar
  97. Heller KJ (2006) The Shadow Side of Complementarity: The Effect of Article 17 of the Rome Statute on National Due Process. CLF 17(3–4):255–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Heller KJ (2012) Why the Failure to Provide Saif with Due Process Is Relevant to Libya’s Admissibility Challenge. Opinio Juris. http://opiniojuris.org/2012/08/02/why-the-failure-to-provide-saif-with-due-process-is-relevant-to-libyas-admissibility-challenge/. Accessed 30 September 2014
  99. Heller KJ (2013) The Taylor Sentencing Judgment: A Critical Analysis. JICJ 11(4):835–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Heller KJ (2016) Radical Complementarity. JICJ 14(3):637–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Holmes JT (2002) Complementarity: National Courts versus the ICC. In: Cassese A, Gaeta P, Jones JRWD (ed) The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary, Vol. I. OUP, Oxford, pp. 667–686Google Scholar
  102. ICC Elements of Crimes (1998) International Criminal Court, Elements of CrimesGoogle Scholar
  103. ICC RPR (2002) Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the International Criminal CourtGoogle Scholar
  104. ICC Statute (1998) Rome Statute of the International Criminal CourtGoogle Scholar
  105. ICCPR (1966) International Covenant on Civil and Political RightsGoogle Scholar
  106. ICTR Statute (1994) Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for RwandaGoogle Scholar
  107. ICTY Statute (1993) Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former YugoslaviaGoogle Scholar
  108. Italy’s Constitution (1947) Costituzione della Repubblica ItalianaGoogle Scholar
  109. Iverson JM (2012) The Continuing Functions of Article 98. GJIL 4(1):131–151Google Scholar
  110. Jackson M (2016) Regional Complementarity: The Rome Statute and Public International Law. JICJ 14(5):1061–1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Jacobs D (2015) The Frog that Wanted to be an Ox: The ICC’s Approach to Immunities and Cooperation. In: Stahn C (ed) The Law and Practice of the International Criminal Court. OUP, Oxford, pp. 281–302Google Scholar
  112. Jalloh CC (2009) Regionalizing International Criminal Law? ICLR 9(3):445–499Google Scholar
  113. Jia BB (2009) The International Criminal Court and Third States. In: Cassese A (ed) The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice. OUP, Oxford, pp. 160–167Google Scholar
  114. Jia BB (2012) The Immunity of State Officials for International Crimes Revisited. JICJ 10(5):1303–1321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Jorda C (2004) The Major Hurdles and Accomplishments of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: What the International Criminal Court Can Learn from Them. JICJ 2(2):572–584Google Scholar
  116. Judgement on the Prosecutor’s Appeal Against the Decision of Pre-Trial Chamber 1 Entitled “Decision on the Prosecutor’s Application for Warrants of Arrest, Article 58”, Situation in the DRC, Case No. ICC-01/04, Appeals Chamber, 13 July 2006. In: Klip A, Sluiter G (2010) (eds) Annotated Leading Cases of International Criminal Tribunals: The International Criminal Court: 2005–2007, Vol. 23, Intersentia, Cambridge, pp. 85–100Google Scholar
  117. Jurdi NN (2011) The International Criminal Court and National Courts: A Contentious Relationship. Ashgate, Farnham, Surrey, UKGoogle Scholar
  118. Jurdi NN (2017) The Complementarity Regime of the International Criminal Court in Practice: Is it Truly Serving the Purpose? Some Lessons From Libya. LJIL 30(1):199–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. King H (2006) Immunities and Bilateral Immunity Agreements: Issues Arising from Articles 27 and 98 of the Rome Statute. NZJPIL 4(2):269–310Google Scholar
  120. Kiyani AG (2013) Al-Bashir and the International Criminal Court: The Problem of Head of State Immunity. ChJIL 12(3):467–508Google Scholar
  121. Kleffner JK (2006) Complementarity as a Catalyst for Compliance. In: Kleffner JK and Kor G (eds) Complementary Views on Complementarity: Proceedings of the International Roundtable on the Complementary Nature of the International Criminal Court, Amsterdam, 25/26 June 2004. Asser Press, The Hague, pp. 79–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Kleffner JK (2008) Complementarity in the Rome Statute and National Criminal Jurisdictions. OUP, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  123. Klip A (2010) Cooperation of States, with reference to Prosecutor v Bagosora, Kabiligi, Ntabakuze and Nsengiyumva, Modalities for Presentation of a Witness,’ Case No. ICTR-98-41-T, Trial Chamber I, 20th September 2006. In: Klip A, Sluiter G (eds) Annotated Leading Cases of International Criminal Tribunals: The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda 2006–2007, Vol. 25. Intersentia, Antwerp/Oxford/Portland, pp. 286–289Google Scholar
  124. Knoops G-JA (2002) Surrendering to International Criminal Courts: Contemporary Practice and Procedures. International and Comparative Criminal Law Series, TP, Irvington-on-Hudson, NYGoogle Scholar
  125. Knoops G-JA (2008) Defences in Contemporary International Criminal Law. International and Comparative Criminal Law Series, MNP, Leiden/BostonGoogle Scholar
  126. Knottnerus A (2017) The Immunity of Al Bashir: The Latest Turn in the Jurisprudence of the ICC. EJIL:Talk! https://www.ejiltalk.org/the-immunity-of-al-bashir-the-latest-turn-in-the-jurisprudence-of-the-icc/. Accessed 9 March 2018
  127. Knottnerus AS (2014) The Security Council and the International Criminal Court: The Unsolved Puzzle of Article 16. NILR 61(2):195–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Kochler H (2003) Global Justice or Global Revenge?: International Criminal Justice at the Crossroads. Springer, Vienna/NYCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Kreẞ C (2005) Commentary on Immunity from Jurisdiction. In: Klip A, Sluiter G (eds) Annotated Leading Cases of International Criminal Tribunals: The Special Court for Sierra Leone 2003–2004, Vol. 9. Intersentia, Antwerp/Oxford, pp. 202–208Google Scholar
  130. Kreẞ C (2009) Taylor. In: Cassese A (ed) The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice. OUP, Oxford, pp. 951–952Google Scholar
  131. Kreẞ C (2012) The International Criminal Court and Immunities under International law for States Not Party to the Court’s Statute. In: Bergsmo M, Yan L (eds) State Sovereignty and International Criminal Law, Beijing, TOAEP, Biejing, pp. 223–265Google Scholar
  132. Kreẞ C (2015) The ICC’s First Encounter with the Crime of Genocide, The Case Against Al Bashir. In: Stahn C (ed) The Law and Practice of the International Criminal Court. OUP, Oxford, pp. 669–704Google Scholar
  133. Ku J, Yoo J (2013) Globalization and Sovereignty. BJIL 31(1):210–234Google Scholar
  134. Lee RS (2005) States’ Responses: Issues and Solutions. In Lee RS (ed.) States’ Responses to Issues Arising From the ICC Statute: Constitutional, Sovereignty, Judicial Cooperation and Criminal Law, International and Comparative Criminal Law Series. TP, Irvington-on-Hudson, NY, pp. 1–46Google Scholar
  135. Libyan Code of Criminal Procedure (1955)Google Scholar
  136. Libyan Constitutional Declaration (2011) Open image in new window , 3 August 2011Google Scholar
  137. Magliveras K, Bourantonis D (2003) Rescinding the Signature of an International Treaty: The United States and the Rome Statute Establishing the International Criminal Court. Diplomacy & Statecraft 14(4):21–49Google Scholar
  138. Marek K (2002) Criminalizing State Responsibility. In: Provost R (ed) State Responsibility in International Law. Ashgate, Aldershot, UK/Burlington, VT, USA, pp. 343–368Google Scholar
  139. Maunganidze OA, du Plessis A (2015) The International Criminal Court and the African Union. In: Stahn C (ed) The Law and Practice of the International Criminal Court. OUP, Oxford, pp. 65–83Google Scholar
  140. McAuliffe de Guzman M (1999) Article 21: Applicable Law. In: Triffterer O (ed) Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Observers’ Notes, Article by Article. Nomos, Baden-Baden, pp. 435–446Google Scholar
  141. Megret F, Samson MG (2013) Holding the Line on Complementarity in Libya: The Case for Tolerating Flawed Domestic Trials. JICJ 11(3):571–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Mettraux G, Dugard J, du Plessis M (2018) Head of State Immunities, International Crimes and President Bashir’s Visit to South Africa. ICLR 18(4):577–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Mistry H, Ruiz Verduzco D (Rapporteurs) (2012) The United Nations Security Council and the International Criminal Court. International Law Meeting Summary, with Parliamentarians for Global Action, Chatham House, London. http://www.pgaction.org/pdf/activity/Chatham-ICC-SC.pdf. Accessed 11 September 2014
  144. Mitsilegas V (2009) European Union Criminal Law, Vol. 17, in the series Modern Studies in European Law. HP, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  145. Mochochoko P (1999) International Cooperation and Judicial Assistance. In: Lee RS (ed) The International Criminal Court: The Making of the Rome Statute: Issues, Negotiations, Results. KLI, The Hague/London/Boston, pp. 305–317Google Scholar
  146. Montevideo Convention (1933) Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of StatesGoogle Scholar
  147. Murphy SD (1999) Progress and Jurisprudence of the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. AJIL 93(1):57–97Google Scholar
  148. Muthoni Wanyeki L (2012) Institute for Security Studies, The International Criminal Court’s Cases in Kenya: Origin and Impact. Paper No. 237. file:///C:/Users/csol1/Downloads/Paper237.pdf. Accessed 14 May 2018Google Scholar
  149. Mutyaba R (2012) An Analysis of the Cooperation Regime of the International Criminal Court and its Effectiveness in the Court’s Objective in Securing Suspects in its Ongoing Investigations and Prosecutions. ICLR 12(5):937–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Naqvi YQ (2010) Impediments to Exercising Jurisdiction Over International Crimes. Asser Press, The HagueCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Neuman GL (2014) Bi-level Remedies for Human Rights Violations. HILJ 55(2):323–360Google Scholar
  152. Nilsson C (2004) Contextualizing the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Criminal Court. LJIL17(3):559–578Google Scholar
  153. Nollkaemper A (2011) National Courts and the International Rule of Law. OUP, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Nouwen SMH (2005) The Special Court for Sierra Leone and the Immunity of Taylor: The Arrest Warrant Case Continued. LJIL 18(3):645–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Nouwen SMH (2011) Fine-Tuning Complementarity. In: Brown BS (ed) Research Handbook on International Criminal Law. EE, Cheltenham, UK/Northampton, MA, USA, pp. 206–231Google Scholar
  156. Nsereko D (2009) Cooperation with the Court on Matters of Arrest and Surrender of Indicted Fugitives: Lessons from the Ad Hoc Tribunals and National Jurisdictions. In: Doria J, Gasser H-P, Bassiouni MC (eds) The Legal Regime of the International Criminal Court: Essays in Honour of Professor Igor Blishchenko. MNP, Leiden/Boston, pp. 975–999Google Scholar
  157. Nsereko D (2013) The International Criminal Court and Complementarity in Practice. LJIL 26(2):427–447Google Scholar
  158. Ocampo LM (2005) First Report of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Mr. Luis Moreno Ocampo, To the Security Council Pursuant to UNSCR 1593 (2005). https://www.legal-tools.org/uploads/tx_ltpdb/ICC_Darfur_UNSC_Report_290605_EN.pdf. Accessed 2 January 2016
  159. Odero S (2011) Politics of International Criminal Justice: The ICC’s Arrest Warrant for Al Bashir and the African Union’s Neo-Colonial Conspirator Thesis. In: Murungu C, Biegon J (eds) Prosecuting International Crimes in Africa. PULP, Pretoria, pp. 145–160Google Scholar
  160. Olásolo H (2005) The Triggering Procedure of the International Criminal Court. MNP, Leiden/BostonGoogle Scholar
  161. Olásolo H (2007) The Lack of Attention to the Distinction Between Situations and Cases in National Laws on Co-operation with the ICC with Particular Reference to the Spanish Case. LJIL 20(1):193–205Google Scholar
  162. Orakhelashvili A (2011) Immunities of State Officials, International Crimes, and Foreign Domestic Courts: A Reply to Dapo Akande and Sangeeta Shah. EJIL 22(3):849–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. OTP (2003) Informal Expert Paper: The Principle of Complementarity in Practice. ICC-01/04-01/07-1015-Anx. https://www.icc-cpi.int/RelatedRecords/CR2009_02250.PDF. Accessed 17 July 2017
  164. OTP (2007) Policy Paper on the Interests of Justice. ICC-OTP-2007. https://www.icc-cpi.int/nr/rdonlyres/772c95c9-f54d-4321-bf09-73422bb23528/143640/iccotpinterestsofjustice.pdf. Accessed 17 July 2017
  165. OTP (2013) Policy Paper on Preliminary Examinations. ICC-OTP-2013. https://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/otp/otp-policy_paper_preliminary_examinations_2013-eng.pdf. Accessed 10 March 2016
  166. OTP (2014) Report on Preliminary Examination Activities, 2014. https://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/otp/otp-pre-exam-2014.pdf. Accessed 11 November 2016
  167. OTP (2018) Sixteenth Report of the OTP of the ICC to the UNSC Pursuant to UNSCR 1970 (2011). https://www.icc-cpi.int/itemsDocuments/181102-rep-otp-UNSC-libya_ENG.pdf. Accessed 19 December 2018
  168. Paliouras ZA (2014) The Non-Appropriation Principle: The Grundnorm of International Space Law. LJIL 27(1):37–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Papillon S (2010) Has the United Nations Security Council Implicitly Removed Al Bashir’s Immunity? ICLR 10(5):275–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Paulussen C (2010) Male Captus Bene Detentus? Surrendering Suspects to the International Criminal Court. Thesis Submitted In Fulfilment of the Conferment of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) at Tilburg UniversityGoogle Scholar
  171. Paulussen C, Dorsey J (2012) Year in Review 2012. YIHL 15:187–236Google Scholar
  172. Pichon J (2008) The Principle of Complementarity in the Cases of the Sudanese Nationals Ahmad Harun and Ali Kushayb Before the International Criminal Court. ICLR 8(1)185–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Pitcher K (2018) Judicial Responses to Pre-Trial Procedural Violations in International Criminal Proceedings. International Criminal Justice Series, Vol. 16. Asser Press, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  174. Powles S (2012) Complementarity in the ICC: Libya. In: Wilmshurst E, Akande D, Bekou O, Powles S (eds) International Law Meeting Summary, Milestones in International Criminal Justice: Recent Judgments and New Developments. Chatham House, LondonGoogle Scholar
  175. Prost K (2005) Co-operation with the International Criminal Court: Arrests and Surrender, the Gathering of Evidence and Asset Forfeiture. In: Brandon B, du Plessis M (eds) The Prosecution of International Crimes: A Practical Guide to Prosecuting International Criminal Court Crimes in Commonwealth States. Commonwealth Secretariat, London, pp. 73–93Google Scholar
  176. Prost K (2011) State Cooperation and Transfers. In: Schabas WA, Bernaz N (eds) Routledge Handbook of International Criminal Law, Routledge, T & F, Milton Park, Abingdon, UK, pp. 305–322Google Scholar
  177. Prost K (2018) The Surprises of Part 9 of the Rome Statute on International Cooperation and Judicial Assistance. JICJ 16(2):363–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Prost K, Schlunck A (1999) Article 98: Cooperation with Respect to Waiver of Immunity and Consent to Surrender. In: Triffterer O (ed) Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Observers’ Notes, Article by Article. Nomos, Baden-Baden, pp. 1131–1133Google Scholar
  179. Protocol No. 7 to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1984)Google Scholar
  180. Protocol on the Privileges and Immunities of the European Communities (1967) [Official Journal, No. 167, 13th July 1967]Google Scholar
  181. Prouveze R (2011) Immunities. In: Schabas WA, Bernaz N (eds) Routledge Handbook of International Criminal Law. Routledge, T & F, Milton Park, Abingdon, UK, pp. 355–367Google Scholar
  182. Ragazzi M (1997) The Concept of International Obligations Erga Omnes. CP, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  183. Ramsden M, Yeung I (2016) Head of State Immunity and the Rome Statute: A Critique of the Pre-Trial Chamber’s Malawi and DRC Decisions. ICLR 16(4):703–729Google Scholar
  184. Rastan R (2010) Complementarity: Contest or Collaboration? In: Bergsmo M (ed) Complementarity and the Exercise of Universal Jurisdiction for Core International Crimes. Forum for International Criminal and Humanitarian Law, Publication Series No. 7, TOAEP, Oslo, pp. 83–132Google Scholar
  185. Rastan R (2017) What is “Substantially the Same Conduct”?: Unpacking the ICC’s “First Limb” Complementarity Jurisprudence. JICJ 15(1):1–29Google Scholar
  186. Reisman WM, Arsanjani MH, Wiessner S, Westerman GD (2004) International Law in Contemporary Perspective. FP, NYGoogle Scholar
  187. Richardson PJ (ed) (2007) Archbold: Criminal Pleading, Evidence and Practice. S & M, LondonGoogle Scholar
  188. Robinson D (2003) Serving the Interests of Justice: Amnesties, Truth Commissions and the International Criminal Court. EJIL14(3):481–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Robinson D (2006) Comments on Chapter 4 of Claudia Cardenas Aravena. In: Kleffner JK, Kor G (eds) Complementary Views on Complementarity: Proceedings of the International Roundtable on the Complementary Nature of the International Criminal Court, Amsterdam, 25/26 June 2004. Asser Press, The Hague, pp. 141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Robinson D (2010) The Mysterious Mysteriousness of Complementarity. CLF 21(1):67–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Robinson D (2011) The Inaction Controversy: Neglected Words and New Opportunities. In: Stahn C, El Zeidy MM (eds) The International Criminal Court and Complementarity: From Theory to Practice, Volume I. CUP, Cambridge, pp. 460–502Google Scholar
  192. Roggemann H (2002) National Security and Protection of the State in National and International Criminal Procedure: Systematic and Comparative Aspects. In: Roggemann H, Šarcevic P (eds) National Security and International Criminal Justice. KLI, Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands, pp. 1–24Google Scholar
  193. Russo F (2012) Disaster Through the Lens of International Criminal Law. In: de Guttry A, Gestri M, Venturini G (eds) International Disaster Response Law. Asser Press, The Hague, pp. 441–462Google Scholar
  194. Ryngaert C (2008) The Doctrine of Abuse of Process: A Comment on The Cambodia Tribunal’s Decisions in the Case Against Duch (2007). LJIL 21(3):719–737Google Scholar
  195. Schabas W (2001) An Introduction to the International Criminal Court. CUP, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  196. Schabas W (2007) An Introduction to the International Criminal Court, 3rd edn. CUP, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  197. Schabas WA (2006) The UN International Criminal Tribunals: The Former Yugoslavia, Rwanda and Sierra Leone. CUP, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  198. Schabas WA (2010) The International Criminal Court: A Commentary on the Rome Statute. Oxford Commentaries on International Law, OUP, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Scheffer D (2005) Article 98(2) of the Rome Statute: America’s Original Intent. JICJ 3(2):333–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Schengen Acquis (1999) The Schengen Convention to Implement the Schengen Agreement of 14 June 1985Google Scholar
  201. Scobbie I (2003) New Wine in Old Bottles or Old Wine in New Bottles? Reflections on the Assertion of Jurisdiction in Public International Law. In: Capps P, Evans M, Konstadinidis S (eds) Asserting Jurisdiction: International and European Legal Perspectives. HP, Oxford/Portland, Oregon, pp. 17–37Google Scholar
  202. Shany Y (2007) Regulating Jurisdictional Relations Between National and International Courts. OUP, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Simbeye Y (2004) Immunity and International Criminal Law. Ashgate, Farnham, Surrey, UKGoogle Scholar
  204. Skander Galand A (2014) Reviewing Bergsmo M, Yan L (eds) (2012) State Sovereignty and International Criminal Law. Beijing, TOAEP. In: EJIL 25(2):625–629Google Scholar
  205. Sluiter G (2002) International Criminal Adjudication and the Collection of Evidence: Obligations of States. Intersentia, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  206. Sluiter G (2003) The Surrender of War Criminals to the International Criminal Court. LLAICLR 25:605–651Google Scholar
  207. Sluiter G (2009) Arrest and Surrender. In: Cassese A (ed) The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice. OUP, Oxford, pp. 250–252Google Scholar
  208. Sluiter G (2011) There is a Duty to Cooperate for States in the Arrest and Surrender of Al Bashir, under the Genocide Convention and/or the ICC Statute and/or UN Security Council Resolution 1593. Human Rights and International Criminal Law International Criminal Court Forum, University of California, Los Angeles School of Law with the support of the OTP of the ICC. https://iccforum.com/darfur#Sluiter. Accessed 23 December 2016
  209. Sluiter G (2016) The Practice of Shared Responsibility in Relation to International Criminal Tribunals and their Relation to States. Amsterdam Law School Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2016-24, ACIL No. 2016-10, SHARES Research Paper 98 (2016). http://www.sharesproject.nl/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/98-Sluiter-Practice-vol.-2016.pdf. Accessed 15 May 2017
  210. Smeulers A (2007) Jurisdiction –Legality of Arrest. In: Klip A, Sluiter G (eds) Annotated Leading Cases, The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia 2002–2003, Vol. 11. Intersentia, Cambridge, pp. 106–112Google Scholar
  211. Spencer JR (2014) International Law, People Trafficking and the Power to Stay Criminal Proceedings for Abuse of Process. CLJ 73(1):11–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Spinellis D (2002) Global Report: The Ne Bis in Idem Principle in “Global” Instruments. RIDP 73:1149–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Ssenyonjo M (2009) The International Criminal Court and the Warrant of Arrest for Sudan’s President Al-Bashir: A Crucial Step Towards Challenging Impunity or a Political Decision?’ NJIL 78(3):397–431Google Scholar
  214. Stahn C (2010) Arrest and Surrender under the ICC Statute: A Contextual Reading. In: Stahn C, van den Herik L (eds) Future Perspectives on International Criminal Justice. Asser Press, The Hague, pp. 659–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Stahn C (2012) Libya, The International Criminal Court and Complementarity: A Test for ’Shared Responsibility’. JICJ 10(2):325–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Stahn C (2015) Admissibility Challenges before the ICC: From Quasi-Primacy to Qualified Deference? In: Stahn C (ed) The Law and Practice of the International Criminal Court. OUP, Oxford, pp. 228–259Google Scholar
  217. Statute of the SCSL (2002) Statute of the Special Court for Sierra LeoneGoogle Scholar
  218. Stegmiller I (2010) Complementarity Thoughts. CLF 21(1):159–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Stegmiller I (2013) The International Criminal Court and Mali: Towards More Transparency in International Criminal Law Investigations? CLF 24(4):475–499Google Scholar
  220. Swart B (2002a) General Problems In: Cassese A, Gaeta P, Jones JRWD (eds) The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary, Vol. II. OUP, Oxford, pp. 1589–1605Google Scholar
  221. Swart B (2002b) Arrest and Surrender In: Cassese A, Gaeta P, Jones JRWD (eds) The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary, Vol. II. OUP, Oxford, pp. 1639–1703Google Scholar
  222. Swart B, Sluiter G (1999) The International Criminal Court and International Criminal Co-operation. In: von Hebel HAM, Lammers JG, Schuking J (eds) Reflections on the International Criminal Court. Asser Press, The Hague, pp. 91–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Tallgren I, Reisinger Coracini A (2008) On Article 20. In: Triffterer O (ed) Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, 2nd edn. Nomos, Baden-Baden, pp. 669–699Google Scholar
  224. Tladi D (2013) The International Criminal Court Decisions on Chad and Malawi: On Cooperation, Immunities, and Article 98. JICJ 11(1):199–221Google Scholar
  225. Tochilovsky V (2011) Special Commentary: International Criminal Justice – Some Flaws and Misperceptions. CLF 22(4):593–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Tochilovsky V (2014) The Law and Jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunals and Courts: Procedure and Human Rights Aspects, 2nd edn. Intersentia, Cambridge, Antwerp, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  227. Tolbert D, Kontić A (2009) The ICTY: Transitional Justice, the Transfer of Cases to National Courts, and Lessons for the International Criminal Court. In: Stahn C, Sluiter G (eds) The Emerging Practice of the International Criminal Court. MNP, Leiden/Boston, pp. 135–162.Google Scholar
  228. Trahan J (2017) The International Criminal Court’s Libya Cases(s) – The Need for Consistency with International Human Rights as to Due Process and the Death Penalty. ICLR 17(5):803–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Triffterer O (1999) Irrelevance of official capacity. In: Triffterer O (ed) Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Observers’ Notes, Article by Article. Nomos, Baden-Baden, pp. 501–514Google Scholar
  230. Triffterer O (2002) Security Interests of the Community of States, Basis and Justification of an International Criminal Jurisdiction versus ‘Protection of National Security Information’, Article 72 Rome Statute. In: Roggemann H, Šarcevic P (eds) National Security and International Criminal Justice. KLI, The Hague/London/NY, pp. 53–82Google Scholar
  231. UK ICC Act (2001) International Criminal Court Act, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  232. UN Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court, Ad Hoc Committee, Summary Record of the 11th Meeting, 22 June 1998, UN Doc. A/CONF.183/C.1/SR.11Google Scholar
  233. UNC (1945) Charter of the United NationsGoogle Scholar
  234. UN-ICC Relationship Agreement (2004) Negotiated Relationship Agreement Between the International Criminal Court and the United NationsGoogle Scholar
  235. UN Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court (1998) Ad Hoc Committee, Summary Record of the 11th Meeting, 22 June 1998, UN Doc. A/CONF.183/C.1/SR.11Google Scholar
  236. UNSC (2002) Resolution 1422 (2002), UN Doc. S/RES/1422Google Scholar
  237. UNSC (2003) Resolution 1487 (2003), UN Doc. S/RES/1487Google Scholar
  238. UNSC (2005) Resolution 1593 (2005), UN Doc. S/RES/1593Google Scholar
  239. UNSC (2011) Resolution 1970 (2011), UN Doc. S/RES/1970Google Scholar
  240. Usacka A (2016) Constitutionalism and Human Rights at the International Criminal Court. In: Scheinin M, Krunke H, Aksenova M (eds) Judges as Guardians of Constitutionalism and Human Rights. EE, Cheltenham, UK/Northampton, MA, USA, pp. 281–305Google Scholar
  241. van Alebeek R (2008) The Immunity of States and Their Officials in International Criminal Law and International Human Rights Law. Oxford Monographs in International Law, OUP, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  242. van den Wyngaert C, Ongena T (2002) Ne Bis in Idem Principle, Including the Issue of Amnesty. In: Cassese A, Gaeta P, Jones JRWD (eds) The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary, Vol. I. OUP, Oxford, pp. 705–729Google Scholar
  243. van den Wyngaert C, Stessens G (1999) The International Non Bis In Idem Principle: Resolving Some of the Unanswered Questions. ICLQ 48(4):779–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. van der Wilt H (2005) Bilateral Agreements Between the United States and State Parties to the Rome Statute: Are They Compatible with the Object and Purpose of the Statute? LJIL 18(1):93–111Google Scholar
  245. van der Wilt H (2015) Self-Referrals as an Indication of the Inability of States. In: Stahn C (ed) The Law and Practice of the International Criminal Court. OUP, Oxford, pp. 210–227Google Scholar
  246. van Schaack B, Slye RC (2010) International Criminal Law and its Enforcement: Cases and Materials, 2nd edn. FP, St. Paul, MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
  247. VCLT (1969) Vienna Convention on the Law of TreatiesGoogle Scholar
  248. Vervaele JAE (2005) The Transnational Ne Bis In Idem Principle in the European Union: Mutual Recognition and Equivalent Protection of Human Rights. ULR 1(2):100–118Google Scholar
  249. Viebig P (2016) Illicitly Obtained Evidence at the International Criminal Court. International Criminal Justice Series, Vol. 4. Asser Press, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  250. Voetelink J (2013) Status of Forces and Criminal Jurisdiction. NILR 60(2):231–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Warrant of Arrest for Wiranto, Deputy General Prosecutor v Wiranto, Case No 05/2003, The Special Panels for Serious Crime. In: Klip A, Sluiter G (2009) (eds) Annotated Leading Cases of International Criminal Tribunals: Timor Leste: The Special Panels for Serious Crimes 2003–2005, Vol. 16. Intersentia, Antwerp/Oxford/Portland, pp. 63–74Google Scholar
  252. Weatherall T (2015) Jus Cogens: International Law and Social Contract. CUP, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  253. Webb P (2012) Human Rights and the Immunities of State Officials. In: de Wet E, Vidmar J (eds) Hierarchy in International Law: The Place of Human Rights. OUP, Oxford, pp. 114–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Webb P (2013) International Judicial Integration and Fragmentation. OUP, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  255. Weiner AS (2016) Ending Wars, Doing Justice: Colombia, Transitional Justice, and the International Criminal Court. SJIL 52(2):211–241Google Scholar
  256. Werle G (2009) General Principles of International Criminal Law. In: Cassese A (ed) The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice. OUP, Oxford, pp. 54–62Google Scholar
  257. Wilkitzki P (1999) Commentary on Article 101: Rule of Speciality. In: Triffterer O (ed) Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Nomos, Baden-Baden, pp. 1147–1156Google Scholar
  258. Young SNM (2001) Surrendering the Accused to the International Criminal Court. BYIL 71(1):317–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Zahar A, Sluiter G (2008) International Criminal Law: A Critical Introduction. OUP, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  260. Zappalà S (2002) Compensation to an Arrested or Convicted Person. In: Cassese A, Gaeta P, Jones JRWD (eds) The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary, Vol. II. OUP, Oxford, pp. 1577–1585Google Scholar

Copyright information

© T.M.C. Asser Press and the author 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of LawsUniversity of MaltaVallettaMalta

Personalised recommendations