The Fortress, the River and the Garden

A New Metaphor for Cultivating Mutualistic Relationship Between Scientific and Traditional Ecological Knowledge
  • Robin W. Kimmerer
  • Robin W. Kimmerer


In the spirit of the intellectual pluralism which the meeting of traditional and scientific ecological knowledge demands, this essay arises from a diversity of knowledge sources. An important principle of knowledge transmission in many indigenous cultures, is the acknowledgement that there are many truths, depending on the perspective and experiences of the teller (Sinclair 1994, Simpson 2000), so it is important to identify that perspective at the outset. I am an Anishinabekwe of mixed Native and European heritage and a member of the Citizen Potawatomi Nation.


Science Education Indigenous People Knowledge System Traditional Knowledge Indigenous Knowledge 
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Copyright information

© Sense Publishers 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robin W. Kimmerer
    • 1
  • Robin W. Kimmerer
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental and Forest BiologyUnited States
  2. 2.Center for Native Peoples and the EnvironmentSUNY College of Environmental Science and ForestryUnited States

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