Beyond Shadows

Equity, Diversity, and Private Tutoring
  • André E. Mazawi
  • Ronald G. Sultana
  • Mark Bray
Part of the Comparative and International Education book series (CIEDV)


Private tutoring – a fee-based supplementary out-of-school individual or group instruction – is a pervasive phenomenon. As shown by various authors (e.g. Bray, 2009; Bray & Lykins, 2012; Dawson, 2010; Silova, 2010), and the chapters in this collection, private tutoring plays out across, alongside, and in some instances even as part of formal school systems, whether formally or informally.


Private Tutoring Youth Unemployment Shadow Education Educational Provision Present Collection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Sense Publishers 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • André E. Mazawi
    • 1
  • Ronald G. Sultana
    • 2
  • Mark Bray
    • 3
  1. 1.University of British ColumbiaCanada
  2. 2.University of MaltaMalta
  3. 3.University of Hong KongChina

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