Hacking for Social Justice

The Politics of Prefigurative Technology
  • Kate Milberry

Abstract

Since the eruption of the global justice movement at 1999’s Battle of Seattle, much has been said about the impact of the Internet on progressive activism. Of particular interest have been the ways in which activists have used the Internet as a communication medium. Cyberactivism–political activism on the Internet - is a new mode of radical action, and novel practices such as virtual sit-ins, online petitions and email campaigns have enlarged the repertoire of contestation (McCaughey & Ayers 2003).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. 1.
    Abbate, J. (1999). Inventing the Internet. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arnison, M. (2002). Open publishing. Sarai Reader 2002: The Cities of Everyday Life, 329–333.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bennett, W.L. (2004). Communicating global activism: Strengths and vulnerabilities of networked politics. In W. van de Donk, B.D. Loader, P.G. Nixon & D. Rucht, (Eds.) Cyberprotest: New media, citizens, and social movements. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blood, Rebecca. (2000). Weblogs: A history and perspective. Retrieved June 30, 2011 fromGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
    Castells, Manuel. (2001). The Internet galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, business, and society. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ceruzzi, P. (2003). A history of modern computing. 2nd edn. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Coleman, Biella. (2004). Indymedia’s independence: From activist media to free Software. PlaNetwork Journal, 1(1). Retrieved November 22, 2006 from http://journal.planetwork.net/chapter.php?lab=coleman0704.
  9. 9.
    Coleman, Biella, & Hill, Mako. (2004). How free became open and everything else under the sun. MC: A Journal of Media and Culture. Retrieved 11 August 2004 fromhttp://journal.mediaculture.org.au/0406/02_Coleman-Hill.php
  10. 10.
    Cunningham, Ward. (n.d.). Why wiki works. Retrieved 11 August 2006.http://www.c2.com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorks & Leuf, Bo. (2001). The Wiki way. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  11. 11.
    Deibert, R. J. (2000). International plug ‘n’ play? Citizen activism, the Internet and global public policy. International Studies Perspectives, 1, 255–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Edwards, P. N. (2003). Infrastructure and modernity: Force, time and social organization in the history of sociotechnical systems. In T. J. Misa, P. Brey & A. Feenberg (Eds.) Modernity and technology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Feenberg, A. (2005). Critical theory of technology: An overview. Tailoring Biotechnologies, 1(1), 47–64.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    -- (2002). Transforming technology: A critical theory revisited. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    (1999). Questioning technology. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    -- (1995). Alternative modernity: The technical turn in philosophy and social theory. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    -- (1991). Critical theory of technology. New York: Oxford University Press.‘Introduction’ retrieved 18 November 2005 from http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/feenberg/CRITSAM2.HTM.
  18. 18.
    & Bakardjieva, M. (2004). Consumers or citizens? The online community debate. In A. Feenberg and D. Barney (Eds.) Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Flanagin, A.J., Farinola, Wendy Jo, & Metzger, M.J. (2000). The technical code of the Internet/World Wide Web. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 17(4), 409–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Glaser, Anja Ebersbach-Markus. (2004). Towards emancipatory use of a medium: The Wiki. International Journal of Information Ethics, 2, 1–9. Retrieved 5 December 2005 fromhttp://www.ir-i-e.net/inhalt/002/ijie_002_09_ebersbach.pdf.
  21. 21.
    GNU. (n.d.) Overview of the GNU system. Retrieved 22 November 2005 from http://www.gnu.org/gnu/gnu-history.html.
  22. 22.
    Gonzolez-Reinhart, Jennifer. (2005). Wiki and the wiki way: Beyond a knowledge management system. Information Systems Research Center. University of Houston.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hafner, K., & Lyon, M. (1996). Where wizards stay up late: The origins of the internet. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Heidegger, Martin. (1977). The question concerning technology, and other essays. Trans. by William Lovitt. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Henshaw-Plath, Evan. (2002). Proposal to reform http://www.indy by highlighting local IMCs. Retrieved 29 April 2003 from http://www.internal.indymedia.org/front.php3?chapter_id=538
  26. 26.
    (2001). IMC-Tech summary for November 16th 2001. Retrieved 28 November 2005from http://archives.lists.indymedia.org/imc-summaries/2001-November/000028.html.
  27. 27.
    Herndon, Sheri. (2003). Barranquilla Presentation/Notes: IMC Panel. Retrieved 1 October 2007http://www.ourmedianet.org/papers/om2003/herndron_om3.rtf
  28. 28.
    Hill, Mako. (2003). Software, politics and Indymedia. Retrieved 25 November 2005 from http://mako.cc/writing/mute-indymedia_software.html.
  29. 29.
    Indymedia. (nd) WelcomeGuest. Retrieved June 30, 2011 fromhttp://docs.indymedia.org/
  30. 30.
    Intrigeri. (2006) How to build or destroy collective desire and practice. Retrieved 1 October 2007 from http://lists.indymedia.org/pipermail/imc-docs/2006-August/0830-za.html
  31. 31.
    Kahn, R.V., & Kellner, D. (2004). Virtually democratic: Online communities and Internet activism. In A. Feenberg & D. Barney (Eds.) Community in the digital age: Philosophy and practice. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kim, E. E. (2005). The brilliant essence of wikis. Retrieved 21 September 2005 fromhttp://www.eekim.com/blog/2005/09/.
  33. 33.
    Klein, Naomi. (2001). World Social Forum: A fete for the end of history. The Nation. March 19, 2001. Retrieved 23 November 2005 fromhttp://www.nadir.org/nadir/initiativ/agp/free/wsf/fete.htm.
  34. 34.
    (2004). Reclaiming the commons. In Tom Mertes (Ed.) A movement of movements: Is another world really possible? London & New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lakhani, K.R. & Wolf, R.G. (2005). Why hackers do what they do: Understanding motivation and effort in free/open source software projects. In J. Feller, B. Fitzgerald, S. Hissam & K.R. Lakhani (Eds.) Perspectives on free and open source software. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lemley, M. A. & Lessig, L. (2004). The end of end-to-end: Preserving the architecture of the Internet in the broadband era. In Mark N. Cooper (Ed.) Open architecture as communications policy. Stanford, CA: Stanford Law School. Retrieved 21 November fromhttp://cyberlaw.stanford.edu/blogs/cooper/archives/openarchitecture.pdf.
  37. 37.
    Lessig, L. (2001). The Internet under siege. Foreign Policy, November/ December, 2001. Retrieved 22 July 2003 from http://www.lessig.org/content/columns/foreignpolicy1.pdf.
  38. 38.
    (1999). Code and other laws of cyberspace. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lih, Andrew. (2004). The foundations of participatory journalism and the Wikipedia Project. Paper presented at Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Toronto, Canada, 7 August 2004. Retrieved 10 November 2005 from http://jmsc.hku.hk/faculty/alih/publications/aejmc-2004-final-forpub-3.pdf.
  40. 40.
    Lovink, Geert. (2003). My first recession. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: V2_/Nai Publishers.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    McCaughey, M., & Ayers, M.D. (2003). Cyberactivism: Online activism in theory and Practice. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Meatball Wiki. (2006). SoftSecurity. Retrieved 14 August 2007 fromhttp://www.usemod.com/cgibin/mb.pl?SoftSecurity
  43. 43.
    Meikle, G. (2002). Future active: Media activism and the Internet. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Morris, D., & Langman, L. (2002). Networks of dissent: A typology of social movements in a global age. Paper presented at International Workshop on Community Informatics, Montreal, Canada, 8 October 2002. Retrieved 2 December 2005 fromhttp://www.is.njit.edu/vci/iwci1/iwci1-toc.html
  45. 45.
    Nelson, T. H. (1987). Computer lib: Dream machines. Redmond, WA: Tempus Books.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Obscura, V. (2005). From free software to street activism and vice versa: An Introduction. Retrieved 25 November 2005 from http://garlicviolence.org/txt/drkvg-fs2sa.html.
  47. 47.
    Open Source Initiative. (n.d.) FAQ. Retrieved 15 April 2007 from http://www.opensource.org/advocacy/faq.php.
  48. 48.
    Pinch, T. & Bijker, W.E. (1987). The social construction of facts and artifacts: Or how the sociology of science and the sociology of technology might benefit each other. In W.E. Bijker, T. Hughes & T. Pinch, (Eds.) The social construction of technological systems. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rheingold, H. (1993). The virtual community: Homesteading on the electronic frontier. Reading, MA: Adison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Schroeder, A. (2005). Comment: The brilliant essence of wikis. Retrieved 21 September 2005 from http://www.eekim.com/blog/2005/09/.
  51. 51.
    Smith, J. (2001). Cyber subversion in the information economy. Dissent, Spring, 48–52.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stallman, R. (1999). The GNU Project. Retrieved 22 November 2005 fromhttp://www.gnu.org/gnu/thegnuproject.html.
  53. 53.
    Stevenson, J. H. (2001). (De)constructing the matrix: Toward a social history of the early internet. Retrieved February 13,2005 from http://www.tranquileye.com/netessays/de_constructing_the_matrix.html
  54. 54.
    van Aelst, P., & Walgrave, S. (2004). New media, new movements? The role of the Internet in shaping the “anti-globalization” movement. In W. van de Donk, B.D. Loader, P.G. Nixon & D. Rucht (Eds.) Cyberprotest: New media, citizens, and social movements. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tidwell, Alan. (1999). The virtual agora: dialogues and professional communities. First Monday. Retrieved 1 October 2007 from http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/issue4_7/tidwell/index.html
  56. 56.
    Wagner, C. (2006). Breaking the knowledge acquisition bottleneck through conversational knowledge management. Information Resources Management Journal, 19(1).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Zittrain, Jonathon L. (2006). The generative Internet. Harvard Law Review, 119, 1974–2040.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Sense Publishers 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kate Milberry

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations