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Introduction to Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Hepatitis B (AECHB)

  • Qin Ning
  • Di Wu
  • Wei Guo
  • Wei-Na Li
  • Xiao-Jing Wang
  • Ke Ma
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter describes definition, natural history and recent achievement debrief:
  1. 1.

    Although the definition and classification of liver failure have differed, a consensus has been reached regarding the definition, classification and clinical diagnosis of liver failure.

     
  2. 2.

    Acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B (with the most severe form, HBV-ACLF) refers to submassive to massive necrosis in the livers of HBV-infected patients with mild or moderate inflammation, taking place over a short period of time and leading to progressive damage of liver function, metabolic disorders, and secondary multiple organ failure without an appropriate management. Clinical manifestations include progressive disturbances in blood coagulation, jaundice, hepatic encephalopathy, and ascites.

     
  3. 3.

    The natural history of severe hepatitis B is mainly influenced by host factors, including gender, age, precipitating factors, and underlying diseases, and by virological factors, including virus genotype, viral mutations, and viral replication. Severe hepatitis B can be divided into early, middle and late stages according to major clinical indicators, e.g. prothrombin activity. Antiviral treatment and artificial liver support is beneficial to clinical outcomes and prognosis.

     
  4. 4.

    Recent research on the pathologic mechanism of severe hepatitis B has focused primarily on virology, host immunology, and genetics. No sensitive, reliable early warning parameters have been found to predict the development of severe hepatitis B. Early antiviral treatment has become an important means to prevent severe hepatitis B. Immune regulation and repair of liver cell damage are expected to become effective intervention measures.

     

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. and Huazhong University of Science and Technology Press 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qin Ning
    • 1
  • Di Wu
    • 1
  • Wei Guo
    • 1
  • Wei-Na Li
    • 1
  • Xiao-Jing Wang
    • 1
  • Ke Ma
    • 1
  1. 1.Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina

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