Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Tests of AECHB and Severe Hepatitis (Liver Failure)

  • Liang Peng
  • Zhi-Liang Gao
  • Yu-Ming Wang
  • Deng-Ming He
  • Jing-Ming Zhao
  • Xue-Fan Bai
  • Xiao-Jing Wang


This chapter describes the clinical symptoms and signs of AECHB and HBV ACLF, classification, grading of HBV ACLF and their features, diagnostic principles and standards in liver pathology, biochemistry, and virology of HBV ACLF.
  1. 1.

    Liver failure is defined as serious damage to the liver cause by a variety of etiologies, leading to liver function disorder or even decompensation, and clinical syndromes with coagulopathy, jaundice, hepatic encephalopathy, and ascites.

  2. 2.

    Severe hepatitis B can be indicated pathologically by apparent hepatocellular necrosis, including extensive multifocal, confluent, bridging, sub-massive or massive necrosis.

  3. 3.

    Laboratory tests during the course of severe exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B can reflect pathological changes and liver function in a timely manner, providing objective and informative reference data for evaluation of disease severity and treatment efficacy. Among the most important laboratory tests are those for prothrombin activity, international normalized ratio, and increases in total bilirubin concentration.

  4. 4.

    Severe hepatitis B is associated with interactions between the virus and host factors. Detection of HBV DNA, HBV genotype, quasispecies and HBV mutation can provide important theoretical bases for the prevention, control or mitigation of the progress of severe hepatitis B.

  5. 5.

    Noninvasive imaging modalities can be used to visualize the entire liver and parts of it. Measuring liver volume to evaluate liver size and liver reserve capacity is regarded as important in diagnosis, surgical approach and prognostic evaluation of patients with severe exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B and liver failure.

  6. 6.

    Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) is the first quantitative method developed to assess whether a patient with liver failure requires a liver transplant. The predictive value of the MELD model has been improved by the MELD-Na, iMELD, and MESO models. Several other valuable prognostic models have been developed. For example, for patients with HBV-ACLF, the established TPPM scoring system was found to be more predictive than MELD score.



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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. and Huazhong University of Science and Technology Press 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liang Peng
    • 1
  • Zhi-Liang Gao
    • 1
  • Yu-Ming Wang
    • 2
  • Deng-Ming He
    • 2
  • Jing-Ming Zhao
    • 3
  • Xue-Fan Bai
    • 4
  • Xiao-Jing Wang
    • 5
  1. 1.The Third Affiliated HospitalSun Yat-Sen UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Southwest HospitalThe First Hospital Affiliated To AMUChongqingChina
  3. 3.Beijing 302 HospitalBeijingChina
  4. 4.Tangdu HospitalThe Fourth Military Medical UniversityShanxiChina
  5. 5.Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical CollegeHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina

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