In utero, the fetal lungs are atelectatic. Twenty minutes after birth, the lung volume reaches 17 mL, and 3–6 h later, it reaches 36 mL. Full lung dilation usually does not occur for several days. Lung dilation usually starts from the anterior margin and the apex of the lungs, and the paravertebral dilation and central and rear dilation occur later. The inability to undergo pulmonary dilation for any reason, or the loss of normal function in response to inadequate aeration from collapse of the pulmonary tissues, is called atelectasis [1, 2]. Atelectasis is not an independent disease; instead, it is a common complication of multiple diseases. Atelectasis is a common cause of neonatal dyspnea, protracted illness, and difficulty withdrawing a ventilator. The correct diagnosis of atelectasis is important for reasonable treatment, improvement of the patient’s condition, and prognosis [1–3].
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