Infectious Pneumonia of the Newborn
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Infectious pneumonia is the most common disease in newborns and is also an important cause of neonatal death. According to statistics, infectious pneumonia accounts for more than 1/3 of the total number of newborn hospitalizations, and the number of deaths due to infectious pneumonia accounts for more than 1/4 of the total number of deaths in newborns and for more than 1/5 of neonate autopsy cases [1, 2]. Infection can occur inside the uterus, during delivery or after birth, and prenatal pathogens can infect fetuses through the blood circulating through the placenta and amniotic membrane, or pathogenic bacteria can ascend to infect fetuses due to the premature rupture of membranes. In intrapartum cases, infection is induced because fetuses are contaminated with amniotic fluid or maternal cervical secretions during delivery [2, 3]. Postpartum infection primarily occurs through the respiratory tract, through the blood or through an iatrogenic route. Common pathogens include Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, viruses (such as cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, rubella virus, Coxsackie virus, and chicken pox virus), Klebsiella, Listeria, Mycoplasma, and Chlamydia [2, 3].
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