Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS), also known as hyaline membrane disease (HMD), refers to a severe lung disease with the main clinical manifestations of dyspnea, cyanosis, and respiratory failure in newborns shortly after birth. This disease results from the formation of additional eosinophilic hyaline membranes and pulmonary atelectasis from the alveolar wall to the terminal bronchiole wall caused by the primary or secondary absence of pulmonary surfactant (PS) due to various reasons. The disease was previously believed to occur mainly in premature infants; the younger the gestational age and the lower the weight of the infant at birth, the higher the incidence of this disease is. However, recently, with the conventional application of antenatal corticosteroids and/or PS prevention in the delivery room as well as the early development of INSURE (intubation-surfactant-extubation) technology, severe and typical respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) has become increasingly rare in preterm infants, while there have been more and more reports of full-term infants with RDS. RDS is one of the main causes of neonatal respiratory problems and death; therefore, more attention has been paid to this disease by neonatologists and obstetricians.
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