The Wadden Sea: Denmark, The Netherlands, and Germany

  • Vanda Claudino-Sales
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 28)


The Wadden Sea is the largest unbroken system of intertidal sand and mud flats in the world. It is distinctive in being almost entirely a tidal flat and barrier system with only minor river influences, and an outstanding example of the large-scale development of an intricate and complex temperate-climate sandy barrier coast under conditions of rising sea level. It is a large, temperate, relatively flat coastal wetland environment, formed by a multitude of transitional habitats with tidal channels, sandy shoals, seagrass meadows, mussel beds, sandbars, mudflats, salt marshes, estuaries, beaches, and dunes. It is considered one of the most important areas for migratory birds in the world: up to 6.1 million birds can be present at the same time, and an average of 10–12 million pass through it each year.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vanda Claudino-Sales
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal University of Ceará StateFortalezaBrazil

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