Located in the north-central Pacific Ocean, Papahānaumokuākea, a part of the Hawaii Archipelago, is an isolated group of small islands and atolls 250 km to the northwest of Hawaii Island. Much of the site is made up of pelagic and deepwater habitats with features such as seamounts and submerged banks, extensive coral reefs and lagoons, and also emergent lands distributed between a number of eroded high islands, pinnacles, atoll islands, and cays. The area has deep cosmological and traditional significance for Hawaiian culture, as it is considered the place where life originates and to where the spirits return after death. It is the second largest marine protected area in the world and is a mixed cultural and natural World Heritage site.
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- Papahānaumokuākea Government (2017) Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. http://www.papahanaumokuakea.gov/. Accessed 2 Aug 2017
- UNEP/WCMC (United Nations Environmental Programme/World Coastal Monitoring Centre) (2011) Papahānaumokuākea United States of America. Report, Cambrigde, EnglandGoogle Scholar
- UNESCO WHC (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization World Heritage Centre) (2017) Papahānaumokuākea. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1326. Accessed 2 Aug 2017