Papahānaumokuākea, USA

  • Vanda Claudino-Sales
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 28)


Located in the north-central Pacific Ocean, Papahānaumokuākea, a part of the Hawaii Archipelago, is an isolated group of small islands and atolls 250 km to the northwest of Hawaii Island. Much of the site is made up of pelagic and deepwater habitats with features such as seamounts and submerged banks, extensive coral reefs and lagoons, and also emergent lands distributed between a number of eroded high islands, pinnacles, atoll islands, and cays. The area has deep cosmological and traditional significance for Hawaiian culture, as it is considered the place where life originates and to where the spirits return after death. It is the second largest marine protected area in the world and is a mixed cultural and natural World Heritage site.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vanda Claudino-Sales
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal University of Ceará StateFortalezaBrazil

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