Advertisement

Henderson Island, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

  • Vanda Claudino-Sales
Chapter
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 28)

Abstract

Henderson Island, located in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, is a fossil coral atoll and is the world’s only raised atoll where the ecology is essentially intact, having been little degraded because of its extreme isolation and rough terrain. The surface is largely a plateau of reef rubble interspersed with areas of sharp coral pinnacles and with extremely rugged dissected karstic limestone round the edges. The central depression is the site of a fossil lagoon which formed before the island rose. The land is surrounded by high limestone cliffs which protect the island from storms. Its fossil corals record changes in sea levels and the climate over half a million years, and its isolation makes it an ideal site for studying the dynamics of island evolution and natural selection.

References

  1. Andersen MB, Stirling CH, Potter EK, Halliday AN, Blake SG, McCulloch MT, Ayling BF, O’Leary MJ (2010) The timing of sea-level high-stands during marine isotope stages 7,5 and 9: constraints from the uranium-series dating of fossil corals from Henderson Island. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:3598–3520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blake S (1995) Late quaternary history of Pitcairn Island, Pitcairn Group. Biol J Linn Soc 56:43–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brooke ML, Hepburn I, Trevelyan RJ (2004) Henderson World Heritage Site. Management Plan 2004–2009, conserving a unique site. Foreign & Commonwealth Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Ducan RA, McDougal I, Carter RM, Coombs DS (1974) Pitcairn Island – another Pacific hot spot. Nature 251(5477):679–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Flenley J, Parkes A, Johnson M (1987) Vegetation survey of Henderson Island. Report, Operation Raleigh, London, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  6. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) (2013) Herderson Island State of conservation. IUCN 2014 Conservation Outlook. Report, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  7. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) (2014) IUCN world heritage outlook. A conservation assessment of all natural World Heritage sites. Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  8. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) (2017) Henderson Island Conservation Outlook. http://www.worldheritageoutlook.iucn.org/node/1020. Accessed 27 Dec 2017
  9. McNutt M, Menard HW (1978) Lithosphere flexure and uplifted atoll. J Geophys Res 83:1206–1212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Osipova E, Shadie P, Zwahlen C, Osti M, Shi Y, Kormos C, Bertzky B, Murai M, Van Merm R, Badman T (2017) IUCN world heritage outlook 2: a conservation assessment of all natural world heritage sites. IUCN, GlandCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Spencer T (1995) The Pitcairn Islands, South Pacific Ocean: plate tectonic and climatic contexts. Biol J Linn Soc 56:13–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Spenser T, Paulay G (1989) Geology and geomorphology of Henderson Island. Atoll Res Bull 323:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. St. John H, Philipson W (1962) An account of the flora of Henderson Island, South Pacific Ocean. Trans Royal Soc N Z 1:175–194Google Scholar
  14. Steadman D, Olson S (1985) Bird remains from an archaeological site on Henderson Island, South Pacific: man-caused extinctions on an “uninhabited” island. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:6191–6195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Stirling CH, Esat TM, Lambeck K, McCulloch MT, Blake SG, Lee D-C, Halliday AN (2001) Orbital forcing of the marine isotope stage 9 interglacial. Science 291:290–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. UNEP/WCMC (United Nations Environmental Programme/World Conservation Monitoring Centre) (2011) Henderson Island, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Report, Cambridge, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  17. UNESCO WHC (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization World Heritage Centre) (2017) Henderson Island. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/487. Accessed 23 July 2017
  18. Weisler M (1995) Henderson Island prehistory: colonisation and extinction a remote Polynesian island. Biol J Linn Soc 56:377–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vanda Claudino-Sales
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal University of Ceará StateFortalezaBrazil

Personalised recommendations