The Sundarbans, Bangladesh and India

  • Vanda Claudino-Sales
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 28)


The Sundarbans, at the mouth of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers between India and Bangladesh, is the largest contiguous mangrove forest in the world. The forest is a mosaic of islands of different shapes and sizes, perennially washed by brackish water in and around endless labyrinths of water channels. The islands are of great environmental importance as a storm barrier, shore stabilizer, and nutrient and sediment trap and support a wide variety of aquatic, benthic, and terrestrial organisms. The ecosystem is an example of the ecological processes of monsoon rain flooding, delta formation, tidal influence, and plant colonization. The site supports great biodiversity in its terrestrial and marine habitats, ranging from micro to macro flora and fauna. The Sundarbans is also of important for globally endangered species. The mangrove habitat supports the largest population of tigers in the world which have adapted to an almost amphibious life.


  1. Attri SD, Tyagi A (2010) Climate profile of India. Monograph Environment Meteorology 01/2010. India Meteorological Department, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  2. Aziz A, Barlos ACD, Greenwood CC, Islam A (2013) Prioritizing threats to improve conservation strategy for the tiger Panthera tigris in the Sundarbans Reserve Forest of Bangladesh. Oryx 47:510–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biswas SR, Choudhury JK, Nishat A, Rahman MM (2007) Do invasive plants threaten the Sundarbans mangrove forest of Bangladesh? For Ecol Manag 245(1):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chatterjee M, Shankar D, Sen G, Sanyal P, Sundar D, Michael G, Chatterjee A, Amol P, Mukherjee D, Suprit K, Mukherjee A, Vijith V, Chaterjee S, Basu A, das M, Chakraborti S, Kalla A, Misra S, Mukhopadhyay S, Mandal G, Sarkar K (2014) Tidal variations in the Sundarbans estuarine system, India. J Earth Syst Sci 122(4):899–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Christensen B (1984) Ecological aspects of the Sundarbans. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), RomeGoogle Scholar
  6. Colette A (2007) Case studies of climate change and world heritage. UNESCO World Heritage Centre, ParisGoogle Scholar
  7. Hussain Z, Acharya G (1994) Mangroves of Sundarbans, vol 2. IUCN, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  8. Khanom S, Buckley R (2015) TIger tourism in the Bangladesh Sandarbans. Ann Tour Res 55(C):178–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lahiri R (1973) Management plan of Tiger Reserve in Sundarbans, West Bengal, India. Department of Forests, KolkataGoogle Scholar
  10. Mitra A, Sengupta K, Banerjee K (2011) Standing biomass and carbon storage of the above-ground structures in dominant mangrove trees in the Sundarbans. For Ecol Manag 216(7):1325–1335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mukherjee I, Chakraborty N, Mandal T (2011) Water, air, & soil pollution 215(1):477–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Osipova E, Shadie P, Zwahlen C, Osti M, Shi Y, Kormos C, Bertzky B, Murai M, Van Merm R, Badman T (2017) IUCN world heritage outlook 2: a conservation assessment of all natural world heritage sites. IUCN, GlandCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Papa F, Durand F, Rossow WB, Rahman A, Bala SK (2010) Satellite altimeter-derived monthly discharge of the Ganga–Brahmaputra River and its seasonal to interannual variations from 1993 to 2008. J Geophys Res 115:1–19Google Scholar
  14. Rahman MM (2012) Time-series analysis of the coastal erosion in the Sundarbans mangrove. Int Arch Photogramm Remote Sens Spat Inf Sci XXXIX-B8:425–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rahman AF, Dragoni D, El-Masri B (2011) Response of the Sundarbans coastline to sea level rise and decreased sediment flow: a remote sensing assessment. Remote Sens Environ 115(12):3121–3128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sanyal P, Bal A (1986) Some observations on abnormal adaptations of mangrove in Indian Sundarbans. Indian Soc CoastAgric Res 4:9–15Google Scholar
  17. Seidensticker J, Hai M (1983) The Sundarbans wildlife management plan: conservation in the Bangladesh coastal zone. International Union for the Conservations of Nature (IUCN), GlandGoogle Scholar
  18. UNEP/WCMC (United Nations Environmental Programme/World Conservation Monitoring Centre) (2008) Sundarbans National Park India The Sundarbans Bangladesh. Rapport, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  19. UNESCO WHC (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization World Heritage Centre) (2016a) The Sundarbans. Accessed 10 Jan 2016
  20. UNESCO WHC (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization World Heritage Centre) (2016b) Sundarbans National Park. Accessed 10 Jan 2016

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vanda Claudino-Sales
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal University of Ceará StateFortalezaBrazil

Personalised recommendations