Natural System of Wrangel Island Reserve, Russia

  • Vanda Claudino-Sales
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 28)


The site consists of two islands – Wrangel Island and the small Herald Island – in the Arctic Ocean, 500 km above the Arctic Circle, northwest of the Bering Strait. The islands are an ecosystem and marine area that was not glaciated during the last Quaternary Ice Age, resulting in exceptionally high levels of biodiversity. Wrangel Island has the world’s highest density of polar bears and also has reindeer, musk ox, walrus, snow goose, and other polar species. The area is so isolated and so far north that it was the last place on Earth that woolly mammoths survived, with the last dying out around 1700 BC. Wrangel and Herald islands formed part of the land bridge between Asia and North America at the intersection of two major continental systems and of plant and animal migration routes between Asia and America.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vanda Claudino-Sales
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal University of Ceará StateFortalezaBrazil

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