Joggins Fossil Cliffs, Canada
The Joggins Fossil Cliffs along the coast of Nova Scotia, Eastern Canada, have been described as the “Coal Age forests” and the “Coal Age Galapagos” due to their richness of fossils from the Carboniferous period (354 to 290 million years ago). The cliffs reveal one of the most significant events in the history of life. They contain the world’s most complete fossil record of terrestrial life in the “Coal Age,” including the first vertebrates able to reproduce on land, as well as the forests in which they lived. With almost 15 km of seacliffs, low bluffs, rock platforms, and beach, the property presents remains of three ecosystems: estuarine bay, floodplain rainforest, and fire-prone forested alluvial plain with freshwater pools. These spectacular seacliffs fringing the Bay of Fundy have been carved out by the world’s highest tides. Their complete and accessible fossil-bearing rock exposures provide the best evidence known of the iconic features of Carboniferous period of Earth history.
- Davies SJ, Gibling MR, Rygel MC, Calder JH, Skilliter DM (2005) The Pennsylvanian Joggins Formation of Nova Scotia: sedimentological log and stratigraphic framework of the historic fossil cliffs. Atl Geol 41:115–142Google Scholar
- IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) (2017) Joggins fossil cliffs conservation outlook. http://www.worldheritageoutlook.iucn.org/explore-sites/wdpaid/903133. Accessed 18 Dec 2017
- Joggins Fossil Institute (2016) http://jogginsfossilcliffs.net/. Accessed 9 May 2016
- UNEP/WCMC (United Nations Environmental Programme/World Conservation Monitoring Centre) (2008) The Joggins Fossil Cliffs, Nova Scotia, Canada. Report, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- UNESCO WHC (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization World Heritage Centre) (2016) Joggins Fossil cliffs. http://whc.unesco.orgen/list/1285. Accessed 9 May 2016Google Scholar