Primordial and Primary Levels of Biothreat and Bioterrorism Prevention

  • Vladan Radosavljevic
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology book series (NAPSA)


There is still an abundance of preventive and solving measures against biological attacks that makes confusion and dezorientation among experts and health policy-makers. Our pyramidal model of adversaries, and spherical system of prevention help us to solve this problem. They make clearly to us, which measures should be applied at any of four levels of prevention without robust spending.

Primordial level of prevention should be focused to stop entering perpetrator/source of infection/reservoir of pathogen and biological agent/pathogen on defended territory. This is the first line of biodefense, deeply and multiply linked with the strategies of intelligence and deterrence.

The primary prevention of biological attack is focused on monitoring and surveillance of potential internal sources of biological agents and bioterrorists. We elaborate three types of surveillance: clinical (syndromic), laboratory and environmental.

Both levels of prevention were detailed analyzed, according to the next issues: Perpetrator/source of infection/reservoir of pathogen (Sophistication, Motivation, Intention, Intelligence, Secrecy, Number of perpetrators, Number of sources of infection/reservoirs, Accessibility to sources of agent/pathogen, Accessibility to targets/population at risk), Biological agent/pathogen (A category, B category, C category, Emerging pathogens, Amount of the available agent/pathogen), Means/media of delivery/factors of transmission (Air, Water, Food, Fomites, Vectors, Biological ammunition, Delivery systems, Dispersion systems mechanism of release), Target/susceptible population at risk (Intelligence, Secrecy, Personal control, Control of means/media of delivery/factors of transmission, Physical protection, Protection by chemoprophylaxis, Protection by immunoprophilaxis, Number of people in a target/population at risk, Importance of target/population at risk, Location of target/population, Distribution of people in a target/population at risk), and for each issue a whole spectrum of cheap, simple and effective preventive measures were proposed.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Military Medical Headquarter, Ministry of DefenceBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.University of DefenceBelgradeSerbia

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