Properties of the Cement-Based Composites with High Content of Metakaolin

  • Biljana IlićEmail author
  • Vlastimir Radonjanin
  • Mirjana Malešev
  • Miodrag Zdujić
  • Aleksandra Mitrović
Conference paper
Part of the RILEM Bookseries book series (RILEM, volume 16)


Environmental concerns and sustainable development require increased replacement of cement. Most of previous studies have shown that the compressive strength of cement-based composites is maximized with a 20% content of metakaolin. We investigated composites prepared by replacing ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with 30 to 50% of metakaolin (MK) and addition of appropriate amount of hydrated lime, which were ordinary cured for 2, 28 or 90 days. Hydration products and microstructure of the pastes were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis/thermal gravimetry (DTA/TG) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). MK was produced by calcination of kaolin from a Serbian deposit, which contained a high level of impurities.

Replacement of OPC with 30% of MK achieved 28 days compressive strength equivalent to that of the control mix. Higher replacement levels, 40% and 50%, combined with the addition of hydrated lime, achieved satisfactory relative strengths of 94% and 87%, respectively. The positive contribution was particularly pronounced after 90 days for a composite containing 50% of MK. The results clearly showed a possibility of obtaining composites having acceptable compressive strength with reduced cement content in accordance with environmental and sustained development requirements.


Metakaolin Hydrated lime Cement-based composites Compressive strength 



The work reported in this paper is a part of the investigation within the research projects TR 36017 and 45001, supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia. This support is gratefully acknowledged.


  1. 1.
    Gonçalves, J.P., Tavares, L.M., Toledo Filho, R.D., Fairbairn, E.M.R.: Performance evaluation of cement mortars modified with metakaolin or ground brick. Constr. Build. Mater. 23, 1971–1979 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2008.08.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ilić, B., Radonjanin, V., Malešev, M., Zdujić, M., Mitrović, A.: Effects of mechanical and thermal activation on pozzolanic activity of kaolin containing mica. Appl. Clay Sci. 123, 173–181 (2016). doi: 10.1016/j.clay.2016.01.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ilić, B., Radonjanin, V., Malešev, M., Zdujić, M., Mitrović, A.: Study on the addition effect of metakaolin and mechanically activated kaolin on cement strength and microstructure under different curing conditions. Constr. Build. Mater. 133, 243–252 (2017). doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.12.068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Murat, M.: Hydration reaction and hardening of calcined clays and related minerals. I. Preliminary investigation on metakaolinite. Cem. Concr. Res. 13, 259–266 (1983). doi: 10.1016/0008-8846(83)90109-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Moropoulou, A., Bakolas, A., Aggelakopoulou, E.: Evaluation of pozzolanic activity of natural and artificial pozzolans by thermal analysis. Thermochim. Acta 420, 135–140 (2004). doi: 10.1016/j.tca.2003.11.059 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tironi, A., Castellano, C.C., Bonavetti, V.L., Trezza, M.A., Scian, A.N., Irassar, E.F.: Kaolinitic calcined clays – Portland cement system: hydration and properties. Constr. Build. Mater. 64, 215–221 (2014). doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.04.065 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cyr, M., Trinh, M., Husson, B., Casaux-Ginestet, G.: Effect of cement type on metakaolin efficiency. Cem. Concr. Res. 64, 63–72 (2014). doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2014.06.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Antoni, M., Rossen, J., Martirena, F., Scrivener, K.: Cement substitution by a combination of metakaolin and limestone. Cem. Concr. Res. 42, 1579–1589 (2012). doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2012.09.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sha, W., O’Neill, E.A., Guo, Z.: Differential scanning calorimetry study of ordinary Portland cement. Cem. Concr. Res. 29, 1487–1489 (1999). doi: 10.1016/S0008-8846(99)00128-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Amin, M.S., Abo-El-Enein, S.A., Abdel Rahman, A., Alfalous, K.A.: Artificial pozzolanic cement pastes containing burnt clay with and without silica fume. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 107, 1105–1115 (2012). doi: 10.1007/s10973-011-1676-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mehta, P.K., Monteiro, P.J.M.: Concrete. Microstructure, Properties, and Materials, 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York (2006). doi: 10.1036/0071462899 Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Khatib, J.M., Wild, S.: Pore size distribution of metakaolin paste. Cem. Concr. Res. 26, 1545–1553 (1996). doi: 10.1016/0008-8846(96)00147-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Biljana Ilić
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vlastimir Radonjanin
    • 2
  • Mirjana Malešev
    • 3
  • Miodrag Zdujić
    • 3
  • Aleksandra Mitrović
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Testing of MaterialsBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technical SciencesUniversity of Novi SadNovi SadSerbia
  3. 3.Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and ArtsBelgradeSerbia

Personalised recommendations