Development of the European Russian Forests in the Holocene

Chapter
Part of the Plant and Vegetation book series (PAVE, volume 15)

Abstract

The history of forest landscapes in European Russia since the time of the Late Pleistocene is shortly reviewed. Human activities are considered a leading factor in the changes of the forest landscape. The main stages of transformation of the European Russian forests in the Holocene are related to the development of the production economy of people. It is shown that anthropogenic impacts caused the segregation of nearly the entire biotic cover of Eastern Europe into several (three) forest regions and two groups of communities, closed forests vs. communities of open and semi-open landscapes, which require human assistance for their maintenance.

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Forest Ecology and Productivity of the Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Zoological MuseumM.V. Lomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Department of Geographical ScienceUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  4. 4.Institute of Physico-Chemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of the Russian Academy of SciencesPushchinoRussia
  5. 5.Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology RAS – Branch of the M.V. Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Russian Academy of SciencesPushchinoRussia

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