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Epigenetics and Its Role in Human Cancer

  • Utkarsh Raj
  • Pritish Kumar VaradwajEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Translational Medicine Research book series (TRAMERE)

Abstract

Cancer is often associated with heritable epigenetic changes, which are characterized by the change in gene expression profile without changing the underlying DNA sequence. The most prominent epigenetic modification is methylation of DNA, which to a large extent is connected to modifications of histone proteins. Epigenetic modifications resulting in a normal gene are reversible, thus endow functional flexibility and diversity to the genome, and these modifications can be cured with selective epigenetic target inhibitors. The role of epigenetics in human cancer has been vastly studied and reported in recent decade with emerging evidences about the significance of epigenetic alterations to comprehend various cellular mechanisms. The cellular mechanisms which are crucial for controlling the growth and progression were seen to be impaired by epigenetic changes, which result into development of various human cancer diseases. Although several targets for cancer epigenetics have been identified and annotated in recent past, the development of novel anticancer treatments for these targets is still in nascent stage. By recognizing the spectrum of cancer epigenetics, an array of new drug discoveries has been possible these days. In this chapter, we presented an overview of such epigenetic modifications which occurs and resulted into human cancer and the relationship between those epigenetic enzyme classes and cancer types, with a note on preclinical utilizations of inhibitors for the treatment of such cancer types. This chapter focuses on the practical understanding of human cancer epigenetics and its perspective use for drug designing.

Keywords

Cancer epigenetics DNA methylation Histone modifications CpG methylation miRNAs 

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Copyright information

© Shanghai Jiao Tong University Press, Shanghai and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BioinformaticsIndian Institute of Information TechnologyAllahabadIndia

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