The Wisdom of Nature: An Evolutionary Heuristic for Human Enhancement

Chapter
Part of the Philosophy and Medicine book series (PHME, volume 122)

Abstract

Human beings are a marvel of evolved complexity. Such systems can be difficult to enhance. When we manipulate complex evolved systems, which are poorly understood, our interventions often fail or backfire. It can appear as if there is a “wisdom of nature” which we ignore at our peril. Sometimes the belief in nature’s wisdom—and corresponding doubts about the prudence of tampering with nature, especially human nature—manifests as diffusely moral objections against enhancement. Such objections may be expressed as intuitions about the superiority of the natural or the troublesomeness of hubris or as an evaluative bias in favor of the status quo. This chapter explores the extent to which such prudence-derived anti-enhancement sentiments are justified. We develop a heuristic, inspired by the field of evolutionary medicine, for identifying promising human enhancement interventions. The heuristic incorporates the grains of truth contained in “nature knows best” attitudes while providing criteria for the special cases where we have reason to believe that it is feasible for us to improve on nature.

Keywords

Human Organism Inclusive Fitness Mathematical Ability Evolutionarily Stable Strategy Evolutionary Restriction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aiello, L.C., N. Bates, and T. Joffe. 2001. In Defense of the Expensive Tissue Hypothesis. In Evolutionary Anatomy of the Primate Cerebral Cortex, ed. D. Falk and K.R. Gibson, 57–78. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allison, A.C. 1954. Protection Afforded by Sickle Cell Trait against Subtertian Malarial Infection. British Medical Journal 1: 290–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersson, R.E., G. Olaison, C. Tysk, and A. Ekbom. 2001. Appendectomy and Protection against Ulcerative Colitis. New Engl J Med 344(11): 808–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldwin, K.M., and F. Haddad. 2002. Skeletal Muscle Plasticity—Cellular and Molecular Responses to Altered Physical Activity Paradigms. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 81(11): S40–S51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barton, N., and L. Partridge. 2000. Limits to Natural Selection. Bioessays 22(12): 1075–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Battista, J.R., A.M. Earl, and M.J. Park. 1999. Why is Deinococcus Radiodurans so Resistant to Ionizing Radiation? Trends in Microbiology 7(9): 362–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beauchamp, T.L., and J.F. Childress. 1979. Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford/New York: University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bersaglieri, T., P.C. Sabeti, N. Patterson, T. Vanderploeg, S.F. Schaffner, J.A. Drake, M. Rhodes, D.E. Reich, and J.N. Hirschhorn. 2004. Genetic Signatures of Strong Recent Positive Selection at the Lactase Gene. American Journal of Human Genetics 74(6): 1111–1120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boon, T., and N. van Baren. 2003. Immunosurveillance against Cancer and Immunotherapy—Synergy or Antagonism? New Engl J Med 348(3): 252–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brunswick, N., G.N. Martin, L. Marzano, and N. Savill. 2007. Visuo-Spatial Ability, Handedness and Developmental Dyslexia: Just how Sinister was Andy Warhol? Presentation to the 25th European Workshop on Cognitive Neuropsychology, Italy 2007.Google Scholar
  11. Bunker, J.P. 2001. The Role of Medical Care in Contributing to Health Improvements within Societies. International Journal of Epidemiology 30(6): 1260–1263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burt, A., and R.L. Trivers. 2006. Genes in Conflict: The Biology of Selfish Genetic Elements. Harvard: Belknap Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Buss, D.M. 2000. The Evolution of Happiness. The American Psychologist 55(1): 15–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Caldwell, J.A. 2001. Efficacy of Stimulants for Fatigue Management: The Effects of Provigil and Dexedrine on Sleep-Deprived Aviators. Fatigue in Transportation (Part F) 4: 19–37.Google Scholar
  15. Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., and W.F. Bodmer. 1999. The Genetics of Human Populations. New York: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  16. Cochran, G., J. Hardy, and H. Harpending. 2006. Natural History of Ashkenazi Intelligence. Journal of Biosocial Science 38(5): 659–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Colloca, L., and F. Benedetti. 2005. Placebos and Painkillers: Is Mind as Real as Matter? Nature Reviews. Neuroscience 6(7): 545–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dawkins, R. 1976. The Selfish Gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. de Murcia, G., and S. Shall, ed. 2000. From DNA Damage and Stress Signaling to Cell Death: Poly ADP-Ribosylation Reactions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Demas, G.E., V. Chefer, M.I. Talan, and R.J. Nelson. 1997. Metabolic Costs of Mounting an Antigen-Stimulated Immune Response in Adult and Aged C57BL/6J Mice. American Journal of Physiology—Reg I 42(5): R1631–R1637.Google Scholar
  21. Diener, E., E.M. Suh, R.E. Lucas, and H.L. Smith. 1999. Subjective Well-Being: Three Decades of Progress. Psychological Bulletin 125(2): 276–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dorus, S., E.J. Vallender, P.D. Evans, J.R. Anderson, S.L. Gilbert, M. Mahowald, G.J. Wyckoff, C.M. Malcom, and B.T. Lahn. 2004. Accelerated Evolution of Nervous System Genes in the Origin of Homo sapiens. Cell 119(7): 1027–1040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dunn, G.P., L.J. Old, and R.D. Schreiber. 2004. The Immunobiology of Cancer Immunosurveillance and Immunoediting. Immunity 21(2): 137–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Elia, M. 1992. Organ and Tissue Contribution to Metabolic Rate. In Energy Metabolism: Tissue Determinants and Cellular Corollaries, ed. J.M. McKinney and H.N. Tucker, 61–79. New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  25. Evans, P.D., S.L. Gilbert, N. Mekel-Bobrov, E.J. Vallender, J.R. Anderson, L.M. Vaez-Azizi, S.A. Tishkoff, R.R. Hudson, and B.T. Lahn. 2005. Microcephalin, a Gene Regulating Brain Size, Continues to Evolve Adaptively in Humans. Science 309(5741): 1717–1720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fairclough, S.H., and K. Houston. 2004. A Metabolic Measure of Mental Effort. Biological Psychology 66(2): 177–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Falk, D., and K.R. Gibson, ed. 2001. Evolutionary Anatomy of the Primate Cerebral Cortex. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Falkner, F., and J.M. Tanner, ed. 1986. Human Growth: A Comprehensive Treatise. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  29. Farah, M.J., J. Illes, R. Cook-Deegan, H. Gardner, E. Kandel, P. King, E. Parens, B. Sahakian, and P.R. Wolpe. 2004. Neurocognitive Enhancement: What Can We Do and What Should We Do? Nature Reviews. Neuroscience 5(5): 421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fish, J.L., and C.A. Lockwood. 2003. Dietary Constraints on Encephalization in Primates. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 120(2): 171–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fisher, R.E. 2000. The Primate Appendix: A Reassessment. The Anatomical Record 261(6): 228–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Flegal, K.A., B.I. Graubard, D.F. Williamson, and M.H.H. Gail. 2005. Excess Deaths Associated with Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association 293(15): 1861–1867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fontaine, K.R., D.T. Redden, C.X. Wang, A.O. Westfall, and D.B. Allison. 2003. Years of Life Lost Due to Obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association 289(2): 187–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Force, U.S.P.S.T. 2002. Aspirin for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events: Recommendation and Rationale. Annals of Internal Medicine 136(2): 157–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Frech, H.E., and R.D. Miller. 1996. The Productivity of Health Care and Pharmaceuticals: An International Comparison. UCLA Research Program in Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy 97–1. http://repositories.cdlib.org/pep/97-1/. Accessed 11 Aug 2016.
  36. Freitas, R.A. Jr. 1998. Exploratory Design in Medical Nanotechnology: A Mechanical Artificial Red Cell. Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Immobilization Biotechnology 26: 411–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gaesser, G.A. 1999. Thinness and Weight Loss: Beneficial or Detrimental to Longevity? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 31(8): 1118–1128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Goldspink, G. 2005. Mechanical Signals, IGF-I Gene Splicing, and Muscle Adaptation. Physiology 20: 232–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gottfredson, L.S. 1997. Why G Matters: The Complexity of Everyday Life. Intelligence 24(1): 79–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. ———. 2004. Life, Death, and Intelligence. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology 4(1): 23–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. ———. 2007. Innovation, Fatal Accidents, and the Evolution of General Intelligence. In Integrating the Mind: Domain General versus Domain Specific Process in Higher Cognition, ed. M.J. Roberts, 387–425. Hove: UK Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  42. Goulandris, N.K., M.J. Snowling, and I. Walker. 2000. Is Dyslexia a Form of Specific Language Impairment? A Comparison of Dyslexic and Language Impaired Children as Adolescents. Annals of DysleExia L 50: 103–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Green, C.S., and D. Bavelier. 2006. Enumeration versus Multiple Object Tracking: The Case of Action Video Game Players. Cognition 101(1): 217–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hagen, E.H. 2002. What is the EEA? (detailed answer) Evolutionary Psychology FAQ. http://www.anth.ucsb.edu/projects/human/epfaq/eea2.html. Accessed 2 July 2006.
  45. Hammerstein, P. 1996. Darwinian Adaptation, Population Genetics and the Streetcar Theory of Evolution. Journal of Mathematical Biology 34(5–6): 511–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hoekstra, H.E., J.M. Hoekstra, D. Berrigan, S.N. Vignieri, A. Hoang, C.E. Hill, P. Beerli, and J.G. Kingsolver. 2001. Strength and Tempo of Directional Selection in the Wild. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98(16): 9157–9160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hofsten, C., and L. Backman, ed. 2002. Social, Developmental, and Clinical Perspectives, Psychology at the Turn of Millennium. Vol. vol. 2. Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  48. Holliday, M.A. 1986. Body Composition and Energy Needs During Growth. In Human Growth: A Comprehensive Treatise, ed. F. Falkner and J.M. Tanner, 101–117. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  49. House, J.S., K.R. Landis, and D. Umberson. 1988. Social Relationships and Health. Science 241(4865): 540–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hubbard, E.M., M. Piazza, P. Pinel, and S. Dehaene. 2005. Interactions between Number and Space in Parietal Cortex. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience 6(6): 435–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Humphrey, N. 2002. Great Expectations: The Evolutionary Psychology of Faith-Healing and the Placebo Response. In Social, Developmental, and Clinical Perspectives, Psychology at the Turn of Millennium, ed. C. Hofsten and L. Bäckman, Vol. 2, 225–246. Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  52. Jensen, P.S., D. Mrazek, P.K. Knapp, L. Steinberg, C. Pfeffer, J. Schowalter, and T. Shapiro. 1997. Evolution and Revolution in Child Psychiatry: ADHD as a Disorder of Adaptation. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 36(12): 1672–1679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kiecolt, J.K., R. Glaser, J.T. Cacioppo, R.C. MacCallum, M. Snydersmith, C. Kim, and W.B. Malarkey. 1997. Marital Conflict in Older Adults: Endocrinological and Immunological Correlates. Psychosomatic Medicine 59(4): 339–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kirsch, I., T.J. Moore, A. Scoboria, and S.S. Nicholls. 2002. The Emperor’s New Drugs: An Analysis of Antidepressant Medication Data Submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration. Prevention & Treatment 5: 23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Klaus, T., R. Joerger, E. Olsson, and C.G. Granqvist. 1999. Silver-Based Crystalline Nanoparticles, Microbially Fabricated. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96(24): 13611–13614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Korol, D.L., and P.E. Gold. 1998. Glucose, Memory, and Aging. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67(4): 764S–771S.Google Scholar
  57. Koutroubakis, I.E., and I.G. Vlachonikolis. 2000. Appendectomy and the Development of Ulcerative Colitis: Results of a Metaanalysis of Published Case-Control Studies. The American Journal of Gastroenterology 95(1): 171–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Leroi, A.M., A. Bartke, G. De Benedictis, C. Franceschi, A. Gartner, E.S. Gonos, M.E. Fedei, T. Kivisild, S. Lee, N. Kartaf-Ozer, M. Schumacher, E. Sikora, E. Slagboom, M. Tatar, A.I. Yashin, J. Vijg, and B. Zwaan. 2005. What Evidence is there for the Existence of Individual Genes with Antagonistic Pleiotropic Effects? Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 126(8): 421–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Maizels, R.M. 2005. Infections and Allergy—Helminths, Hygiene and Host Immune Regulation. Current Opinion in Immunology 17(6): 656–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Manning, C.A., W.S. Stone, D.L. Korol, and P.E. Gold. 1998. Glucose Enhancement of 24-H Memory Retrieval in Healthy Elderly Humans. Behavioural Brain Research 93(1–2): 71–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Martin, R.D. 1996. Scaling of the Mammalian Brain: The Maternal Energy Hypothesis. News in Physiological Sciences 11: 149–156.Google Scholar
  62. Martin, P.Y., and D. Benton. 1999. The Influence of a Glucose Drink on a Demanding Working Memory Task. Physiology & Behavior 67(1): 69–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Martin, L.B. 2nd, A. Scheuerlein, and M. Wikelski. 2003. Immune Activity Elevates Energy Expenditure of House Sparrows: A Link between Direct and Indirect Costs? Proceedings of the Biological Sciences 270(1511): 153–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Matte, T.D. 2001. Influence of Variation in Birth Weight within Normal Range and within Sibships on IQ at Age 7 Years: Cohort Study. British Medical Journal 323(7314): 310–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McCord, J.M. 2000. The Evolution of Free Radicals and Oxidative Stress. The American Journal of Medicine 108(8): 652–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McDade, T.W. 2002. Status Incongruity in Samoan Youth: A Biocultural Analysis of Culture Change, Stress, and Immune Function. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 16(2): 123–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. ———. 2003. Life History Theory and the Immune System: Steps toward a Human Ecological Immunology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 46: 100–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McDaniel, M.A. 2005. Big-Brained People are Smarter: A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between in Vivo brain Volume and Intelligence. Intelligence 33(4): 337–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. McKeown, T., and C.R. Lowe. 1974. An Introduction to Social Medicine. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.Google Scholar
  70. McKinney, J.M., and H.N. Tucker, ed. 1992. Organ and Tissue Contribution to Metabolic Rate, Energy Metabolism: Tissue Determinants and Cellular Corollaries. New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  71. Mealey, L. 1995. The Sociobiology of Sociopathy—An Integrated Evolutionary Model. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18(3): 523–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Meikle, A., L.M. Riby, and B. Stollery. 2005. Memory Processing and the Glucose Facilitation Effect: The Effects of Stimulus Difficulty and Memory Load. Nutritional Neuroscience 8(4): 227–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mekel-Bobrov, N., S.L. Gilbert, P.D. Evans, E.J. Vallender, J.R. Anderson, R.R. Hudson, S.A. Tishkoff, and B.T. Lahn. 2005. Ongoing Adaptive Evolution of ASPM, a Brain Size Determinant in Homo sapiens. Science 309(5741): 1720–1722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Merkle, R.C., and R.A. Freitas. 2003. Theoretical Analysis of a Carbon-Carbon Dimer Placement Tool for Diamond Mechanosynthesis. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 3(4): 319–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Moret, Y., and P. Schmid-Hempel. 2000. Survival for Immunity: The Price of Immune System Activation for Bumblebee Workers. Science 290(5494): 1166–1168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Neisser, U., G. Boodoo, T.J. Bouchard, A.W. Boykin, N. Brody, S.J. Ceci, D.F. Halpern, J.C. Loehlin, R. Perloff, R.J. Sternberg, and S. Urbina. 1996. Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns. The American Psychologist 51(2): 77–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nesse, R.M., and G.C. Williams. 1998. Evolution and the Origins of Disease. Scientific American 279(5): 86–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Newhouse, J.P., and Group TIE. 1993. Free for All? Lessons from the RAND Health Insurance Experiment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Niven, J.E. 2005. Brain Evolution: Getting Better all the time? Current Biology 15(16): R624–R626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nutt, D.J. 2006. Alcohol Alternatives—A Goal for Psychopharmacology? Journal of Psychopharmacology 20(3): 318–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Oria, R.B., P.D. Patrick, H. Zhang, B. Lorntz, C.M.D. Costa, G.A.C. Brito, L.J. Barrett, A.A.M. Lima, and R.L. Guerrant. 2005. APOE4 Protects the Cognitive Development in Children with Heavy Diarrhea Burdens in Northeast Brazil. Pediatric Research 57(2): 310–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ots, I., A.B. Kerimov, E.V. Ivankina, T.A. Ilyina, and P. Horak. 2001. Immune Challenge Affects Basal Metabolic Activity in Wintering Great Tits. Proceedings of the Biological Sciences 268(1472): 1175–1181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Parker, G.A., and J.M. Smith. 1990. Optimality Theory in Evolutionary Biology. Nature 348(6296): 27–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pica, P., C. Lemer, V. Izard, and S. Dehaene. 2004. Exact and Approximate Arithmetic in an Amazonian Indigene Group. Science 306(5695): 499–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Roberts, M.J., ed. 2007. Integrating the Mind: Domain General versus Domain Specific Process in Higher Cognition. Hove: UK Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  86. Roth, G., and U. Dicke. 2005. Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9(5): 250–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sabeti, P.C., S.F. Schaffner, B. Fry, J. Lohmueller, P. Varilly, O. Shamovsky, A. Palma, T.S. Mikkelsen, D. Altshuler, and E.S. Lander. 2006. Positive Natural Selection in the Human Lineage. Science 312(5780): 1614–1620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sapolsky, R.M. 2005. The Influence of Social Hierarchy on Primate Health. Science 308(5722): 648–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sauro, M.D., and R.P. Greenberg. 2005. Endogenous Opiates and the Placebo Effect: A Meta-Analytic Review. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 58(2): 115–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Scholey, A.G., S. Harper, and D.O. Kennedy. 2001. Cognitive Demand and Blood Glucose. Physiology & Behavior 73(4): 585–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Siegel, J.M. 2005. Clues to the Functions of Mammalian Sleep. Nature 437(7063): 1264–1271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Silberman, S. 2001. The Geek Syndrome. Wired 9(12): 174.Google Scholar
  93. Skaper, S.D. 2003. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation Enzyme-1 as a Target for Neuroprotection in Acute Central Nervous System Injury. Curr Drug Targets. CNS & Neurological Disorders 2(5): 279–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Smith, J.M. 1982. Evolution and the Theory of Games. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Starfield, B. 2000. Is US Health Really the Best in the World? Journal of the American Medical Association 284(4): 483–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Thomas, M.K., D.M. Lloyd-Jones, R.I. Thadhani, A.C. Shaw, D.J. Deraska, B.T. Kitch, E.C. Vamvakas, I.M. Dick, R.L. Prince, and J.S. Finkelstein. 1998. Hypovitaminosis D in Medical Inpatients. The New England Journal of Medicine 338(12): 777–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Thompson, E.E., H. Kuttab-Boulos, D. Witonsky, L. Yang, B.A. Roe, and A. Di Rienzo. 2004. CYP3A Variation and the Evolution of Salt-Sensitivity Variants. American Journal of Human Genetics 75(6): 1059–1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tishkoff, S.A., F.A. Reed, A. Ranciaro, B.F. Voight, C.C. Babbitt, J.S. Silverman, K. Powell, H.M. Mortensen, J.B. Hirbo, M. Osman, M. Ibrahim, S.A. Omar, G. Lema, T.B. Nyambo, J. Ghori, S. Bumpstead, J.K. Pritchard, G.A. Wray, and P. Deloukas. 2007. Convergent Adaptation of Human Lactase Persistence in Africa and Europe. Nature Genetics 39(1): 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Trevathan, W. 1987. Human Birth: An Evolutionary Perspective. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  100. Trevathan, W., E.O. Smith, and J.J. McKenna, ed. 1999. Evolutionary Medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Udry, J.R. 1978. Differential Fertility by Intelligence—Role of Birth Planning. Social Biology 25(1): 10–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Vancourt, M., and F.D. Bean. 1985. Intelligence and Fertility in the United States—1912–1982. Intelligence 9(1): 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Venkateswaran, A., S.C. McFarlan, D. Ghosal, K.W. Minton, A. Vasilenko, K. Makarova, L.P. Wackett, and M.J. Daly. 2000. Physiologic Determinants of Radiation Resistance in Deinococcus Radiodurans. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66(6): 2620–2626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Vining, D.R., L. Bygren, K. Hattori, S. Nystrom, and S. Tamura. 1988. IQ/Fertility Relationships in Japan and Sweden. Personality and Individual Differences 9(5): 931–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Voight, B.F., S. Kudaravalli, X.Q. Wen, and J.K. Pritchard. 2006. A Map of Recent Positive Selection in the Human Genome. PLoS Biology 4(3): 446–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. von Karolyi, C., E. Winner, W. Gray, and G.F. Sherman. 2003. Dyslexia Linked to Talent: Global Visual-Spatial Ability. Brain and Language 85(3): 427–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Waterlow, J.C. 1984. Protein Turnover with Special Reference to Man. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology 69(3): 409–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Williams, G.C. 1996/1966. Adaptation and Natural Selection. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  109. Willams, G.C., and R.M. Nesse. 1991. The Dawn of Darwinian Medicine. The Quarterly Review of Biology 66(1): 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Winder, R., and J. Borrill. 1998. Fuels for Memory: The Role of Oxygen and Glucose in Memory Enhancement. Psychopharmacology 136(4): 349–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wood, R.D., M. Mitchell, J. Sgouros, and T. Lindahl. 2001. Human DNA Repair Genes. Science 291(5507): 1284–1289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Worden, R.P. 1995. A Speed Limit for Evolution. Journal of Theoretical Biology 176(1): 137–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Yazdanbakhsh, M., P.G. Kremsner, and R. van Ree. 2002. Immunology—Allergy, Parasites, and the Hygiene Hypothesis. Science 296(5567): 490–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Future of Humanity InstituteUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations