Advertisement

IPM for Food and Environmental Security in the Tropics

  • E. A. Heinrichs
  • Rangaswamy Muniappan
Chapter

Abstract

The global population, by 2050, is estimated to reach nine billion people. Studies show that during the years 2000–2010, worldwide crop production increased at a rate of 23 % while the number of harvested acres increased at only 9 %. In order for supply to meet the growing demand, farmers need to maximize their yield. In fact, crop yields have fallen in many areas because of declining investments in research and infrastructure, as well as increasing water scarcity, land degradation, climate change and biotic stresses (insect pests, weeds, pathogens and vertebrates).

Innovative crop protection is a vital element in the science behind increasing crop yields. The Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach has the potential to reduce the probability of catastrophic losses to pests, minimizes the extent of environmental degradation and contributes to food security. The modern concept of pest management is based on ecological principles and includes the integration and synthesis of different components/control tactics into an Integrated Pest Management system. IPM, in turn, is a component of the agroecosystem management technology for sustainable crop production. The IPM control tactics are (1) Biological control: protection, enhancement and release of natural enemies, (2) Cultural practices: crop rotations, sowing time, cover cropping, intercropping, crop residue management, mechanical weed control, (3) Chemical: minimizing the use of synthetic pesticides in favor of biopesticides (fungi, bacteria and viruses) and biochemical pesticides (insect growth regulators, pheromones and hormones—naturally occurring chemicals that modify pest behavior and reproduction and (4) Resistant varieties: varieties bred using conventional, biotechnological and transgenic approaches. The effective transfer of IPM technology and its adoption by farmers are vital in increasing food production. Participatory IPM research, through its involvement of farmers, marketing agents and the public, is designed to facilitate diffusion of IPM technologies. A number of strategies have been implemented over time in efforts to accelerate diffusion of IPM globally. These strategies and their comparative merits are discussed. Fortunately, the science-based Green Revolution, referred to as the Doubly Green Revolution, is underway, tapping into the ongoing revolution in genetics, molecular biology, plant physiology, modern ecology and information technology. “Appropriate plant protection technology” is playing a vital role in the Doubly Green Revolution and the struggle for food security. In this respect, the quote of the Father of the Green Revolution, Norman Borlaug is appropriate. “The only way that the world can keep up with food production to the levels that are needed with a growing world population is by the improvement of science and technology, and with the right policies that permit the application of that science and technology.”

Keywords

Biodiversity Biocontrol agents Biopesticides Climate change Ecological engineering Insect pests Plant diseases Resistant varieties Technology transfer Weeds 

References

  1. Alam SN, Rashid MA, Rouf FMA, Jhala RC, Patel MG, Satpathy S, Shivalingaswamy TM, Rai S, Wahudeniya I, Cork A, Ammaranan C, Talekar N (2003) Development of an integrated pest management strategy for eggplant fruit and shoot borer in South Asia. AVRDC-The World Vegetable Center, Shanhua, Taiwan. Tech Bull 28:66Google Scholar
  2. Alam SN, Hossain MI, Rouf FMA, Jhala RC, Patel MG, Rath LK, Sengupta A, Baral K, Shylesha AN, Satpathy S, Shivalingaswamy TM, Cork A, Taleker NS (2006) Implementation and promotion of an IPM strategy for eggplant fruit and shoot borer in South Asia. AVRDC publication number 06-672. AVRDC-The World Vegetable Center, Shanhua Taiwan. Tech Bull 36:74Google Scholar
  3. Altieri MA, Nicholls CI (1998) Biological control in agroecosystems through management of entomophagous insects. In: Dhaliwal GS, Heinrichs EA (eds) Critical issues in pest management. Commonwealth Publishers, New Delhi, p 287Google Scholar
  4. Anderson RL (2007) Managing weeds with a dualistic approach of prevention and control. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 27:13–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Atkinson D (1994) Temperature and organism size – a biological law for ectotherms. Adv Ecol Res 25:1–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. AVRDC [Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center] (1993) Vegetable research and development in Southeast Asia: the AVNET final report. AVRDC, Taipei, p 50Google Scholar
  7. Barrett SCH (2000) Microevolutionary influences of global changes on plant invasions. In: Mooney HA, Hobbs RJ (eds) Invasive species in a changing world. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 115–139Google Scholar
  8. Bergmann J, Pompe S, Ohlemüller R (2010) The Iberian Peninsula as a potential source for the plant species pool in Germany under projected climate change. Plant Ecol 207:191–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bloomberg (2014) Green revolution. Bloomberg Annivers Issue 3:112–113Google Scholar
  10. Braun H-J (2011) Norman E. Borlaug’s legacy and the urgent need for continuing innovative wheat technology. Czech J Genet Plant Breed 47:3–5Google Scholar
  11. Cannon RJC (1998) The implications of predicted climate change for insect pests in the UK with emphasis on nonindigenous species. Glob Chang Biol 4:785–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cantrell RP, Hettel GP (2004a) The doubly green revolution in rice. Presentation at the world food prize symposium: rice, biofortification, and enhanced nutrition, Des Moines, Iowa, 14–15 Oct 2004Google Scholar
  13. Cantrell RP, Hettel GP (2004b) New challenges and technological opportunities for rice-based production systems for food security and poverty alleviation. In: Proceedings of the FAO rice conference. Rome, Italy www.fao.org/rice2004/en/pdf/cantrell.pdf
  14. Carroll SP, Hendry AP, Reznick DN, Fox CW (2007) Evolution on ecological time-scales. Funct Ecol 21:387–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Catatalud PA, Polania MA, Seligmann CD, Bellotti AC (2002) Influence of water-stressed cassava on Phenacoccus herreni and three associated parasitoids. Entomol Exp Appl 102:163–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chakraborty S (2005) Potential impact of climate change on plant-pathogen interactions. Aust Plant Pathol 34:443–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chakraborty S, Datta S (2003) How will plant pathogens adapt to host plant resistance at elevated CO2 under a changing climate? New Phytol 159:733–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clements DR, DiTommaso A (2011) Climate change and weed adaptation: can evolution of invasive plants lead to greater range expansion of invasive plants than forecasted? Weed Res 51:227–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Conway G (1999) The doubly green revolution: food for all in the twenty first century. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, p 335, Comstock Publishing Associates. London: Penguin BooksGoogle Scholar
  20. Davis K (2006) Farmer field schools: a boon or bust for extension in Africa. J Int Agric Ext Educ 13:91–97Google Scholar
  21. DeBach P (1974) Biological control by natural enemies. Cambridge University Press, London/New York, pp 15–35Google Scholar
  22. DeBach P, Rosen D (1991) Biological control by natural enemies. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  23. Dhaliwal GS, Arora R (1996) Principles of insect pest management. National Agricultural Technology Information Centre, Ludhiana, p 374Google Scholar
  24. Dhaliwal GS, Heinrichs EA (1998) Critical issues in pest management. Commonwealth Publishers, New Delhi, p 287Google Scholar
  25. Dhaliwal GS, Jindal V, Dhawan AK (2010) Insect pest problems and crop losses: changing trends. Indian J Ecol 37:1–7Google Scholar
  26. Essl F, Dullinger S, Rabitsch W, Hulme PE, Hulber K, Jarošík V, Kleinbauer I, Krausmann F, Kuhn I, Nentwig W, Vilà M, Genovesi P, Gherardi F, Desprez-Loustau M, Roques A, Pyšek P (2011) Socioeconomic legacy yields an invasion debt. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:203–207CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Faria MR, Wraight MP (2007) Mycoinsecticides and mycoacaricides: a comprehensive list with worldwide coverage and international classification of formulation types. Biol Control 43:237–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Feder G, Murgai R, Quizon JB (2004a) Sending farmers back to school: the impact of FFS in Indonesia. Rev Agric Econ 26:45–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Feder G, Murgai R, Quizon JB (2004b) The acquisition and diffusion of knowledge: the case of pest management training in Farmer Field Schools, Indonesia. J Agric Econ 5:217–239Google Scholar
  30. Fleming A, Vanclay F (2010) Farmer responses to climate change and sustainable agriculture. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 30:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2009) How to feed the world in 2050. High-level expert forum, Rome 12–13 OctGoogle Scholar
  32. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2014) State of food security in the world, p 7Google Scholar
  33. Fox MD, Fox BJ (1986) The susceptibility of natural communities to invasion. In: Groves RH, Burdon JJ (eds) Ecology of biological invasions: an Australian perspective. Australian Academy of Science, Canberra, pp 57–66Google Scholar
  34. Fried G, Norton LR, Reboud X (2008) Environmental and management factors determining weed species composition and diversity in France. Agric Ecosyst Environ 128:68–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gao F, Zhu S, Sun Y, Du L, Parajulee M, Kang L, Ge F (2009) Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and cotton cultivar on tri-trophic interaction of Gossypium hirsutum, Aphis gossyppi, and Propylaea japonica. Environ Entomol 37:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gerard PJ, Kean JM, Phillips CB, Fowler SV, Withers TM, Walker GP, Charles JG (2011) Possible impacts of climate change on biocontrol systems in New Zealand. MAF Technical Paper No: 2011/21. ISSN 2230-2794 (online)Google Scholar
  37. Gerard PJ, Barringer JRF, Charles JG, Fowler SV, Kean JM, Phillips CB, Tait AB, Walker GP (2013) Potential effects of climate change on biological control systems: case studies from New Zealand. Biocontrol 58:149–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Godfray HCJ, Beddington JR, Crute IR, Haddad L, Lawrence D, Muir JF, Pretty J, Robinson S, Thomas SM, Toulmin C (2010) Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science 323:812–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. GRACE Communications Foundation (2015) Food security & food access: what does “food security” mean? http://www.sustainabletable.org/280/food-security-food-access
  40. Gregory PJ, Johnson SN, Newton AC, Ingram JSI (2015) Integrating pests and pathogens into the climate change/food security debate. Plant organ growth symposium, Ghent, Belgium, 10–12th Mar 2015. http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/content/60/10/2827.full
  41. Gurr GM, Heong KL, Cheng JA, Catindig J (2012) Ecological engineering against insect pests in Asian irrigated rice. In: Gurr GM, Wratten SD, Snyder WE, Read DMY (eds) Biodiversity and insect pests: key issues for sustainable management. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 214–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hanzlik K, Gerowitt B (2012) Occurrence and distribution of important weed species in German winter oilseed rape fields. J Plant Dis Prot 119:107–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Heinrichs EA, Medrano FG, Rapusas HR (1985) Genetic evaluation for insect resistance in rice. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, p 356Google Scholar
  44. Heong KL (2011) Ecological Engineering – a strategy to restore biodiversity and ecosystem services for pest management in rice production. Technical Innovation Brief, CGIAR SP IPM, No. 15Google Scholar
  45. Hutchinson WD, Burkness EC, Mitchell PD, Moon RD, Leslie TW, Fleischer SJ, Abrahamson M, Hamilton KL, Steffey KL, Gray ME, Hellmich RL, Kaster LV, Hunt TE, Wright RJ, Pecinovsky K, Rabaey TL, Flood BR, Raun ES (2010) Area-wide suppression of European corn borer with Bt maize reaps savings to non-Bt maize growers. Science 330:222–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Iqbal M, Verkerk RHJ, Furlong MJ, Ong PC, Syed AR, Wright DJ (1996) Evidence for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. kurstaki HD-1, Bt subsp. aizawai and Abamectin in field populations of Plutella xylostella from Malaysia. Pestic Sci 48:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. IRRI (2000) A cleaner, greener rice industry. https://www.seedquest.com/News/releases/asia/irri/n3308.htm
  48. IRRI (2003a) Biodiversity adds value. Rice Today 2:26–28Google Scholar
  49. IRRI (2003b) Innovative response to pesticide misuse. IRRI press release. wwsw.irri.org/media/press/press.asp?id=79Google Scholar
  50. Islam Z, Catling HD (2012) Rice pests of Bangladesh: their ecology and management. The University Press Limited, Dhaka, p 422Google Scholar
  51. Jervis M, Kidd N (1996) Insect natural enemies. Chapman and Hall, London, p 723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jones MG (1979) Abundance of aphids on cereals from before 1973 to 1977. J Appl Ecol 16:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jump AS, Peñuelas J (2005) Running and stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change. Ecol Lett 8:1010–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Khondaram MH, Rai AB, Halder J (2010) Novel insecticides for management of insect pests in vegetable crops: a review. Vegetables 37(2):109–123Google Scholar
  55. Kiely T, Donaldson D, Grube A (2004) Pesticide industry sales and usage: 2000 and 2001 market estimates. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  56. Kindlman P, Dixon AFG (1999) Generation time ratios – determinants of prey abundance in insect predator-prey interactions. Biol Control 16:133–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kiritani K (2006) Predicting impacts of global warming on population dynamics and distribution of arthropods in Japan. Popul Ecol 48:5–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kumari V, Singh MP (2009) Spodoptera litura nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV-S) as a component in integrated pest management (IPM) of Spodoptera litura (Fab.) on cabbage. J Biopesticides 2:84–86Google Scholar
  59. Lauer E (1953) Über sie Keimtemperaturen von Ackerunkräutern un deren Einfluɮ auf die Zusammensetzung von Unkrautgesellschaften. Flora 140:551–595Google Scholar
  60. Leung H, Zhu Y, Revilla-Molina I, Fan JX, Chen H, Pangga I, Vera Cruz C, Mew TW (2003) Using genetic diversity to achieve sustainable rice disease management. Plant Dis 87:1156–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lim G-S (1990) Integrated pest management as an alternative to insecticide overuse in vegetables in Southeast Asia. J Agric Entomol 7:155–170Google Scholar
  62. Malla G (2008) Climate change and its impact on Nepalese agriculture. J Agric Environ 9:62–71Google Scholar
  63. Maredia KM, Dakouo D, Mota-Sanchez P (2003) Integrated pest management in the global arena. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, p 512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mehrtens J, Schulte M, Hurle K (2005) Unkrautflora in Mais – Ergebnisse eines Monitorings in Deutshland. Gesunde Pflanz 57:206–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Menzel A, Sparks TH, Estrella N et al (2006) European phenological response to climatic change matches the warming pattern. Glob Chang Biol 12:1969–1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Michel VV, Hartman GL, Midmore DJ (1996) Effect of previous crop on soil populations of Burkholderia solanacearum, bacterial wilt, and yield of tomatoes in Taiwan. Plant Dis 80:1367–1372Google Scholar
  67. Michel VV, Wang JF, Midmore DJ, Hartman GL (1997) Effects of intercropping and soil amendment with urea and calcium oxide on the incidence of bacterial wilt of tomato and survival of soil-borne Pseudomonas solanacearum in Taiwan. Plant Pathol 46:600–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Miller SA, Rezaul Karim AMN, Baltazar AM, Rajotte EM, Norton GW (2005) Developing IPM packages in Asia p 27–50. In: Norton GW, Heinrichs EA, Luther GC, Irwin ME (eds) Globalizing integrated pest management. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, p 338Google Scholar
  69. Mohan MC, Reddy NP, Devi UK, Ramesh K, Sharma HC (2007) Growth and insect assays of Beauveria bassiana with neem to test their compatibility and synergism. Biocontrol Sci Tech 17:1059–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Muniappan R, Meyerdirk DE, Sengebau FM, Berringer DD, Reddy GVP (2006) Classical biological control of the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the Republic of Palau. Fla Entomol 89:212–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Muniappan R, Shepard BM, Watson GW, Carner GR, Sartiami MD, Rauf A, Hammig MD (2008) First report of the Papaya Mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in Indonesia and India. J Agric Urban Entomol 25:37–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Myrick S, Norton GW, Selvaraj KN, Natarajan K, Muniappan R (2014) Economic impact of classical biological control of papaya mealybug in India. Crop Prot 56:82–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. NAS (National Academy of Sciences) (2000) Genetically modified pest-protected plants: science and regulation. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, www.nap.edu/catalog/9795.html Google Scholar
  74. Naylor R, Ehrlich P (1997) The value of natural pest control services in agriculture. In: Dally G (ed) Nature’s services: societal dependence on natural ecosystems. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 151–174Google Scholar
  75. Nicholas A, Birch E, Begg GS, Squire GR (2011) How agroecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems. J Exp Bot 62(10):3251–3261, http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/content/62/10/3251.full CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nogues-Bravo D (2009) Predicting the past distribution of species climatic niches. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 18:521–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nuenschwander P (2007) Socio-economic benefits of some classical biological control projects in Africa. Proceedings of the 16th international plant protection congress-in association with the BCPC international congress – crop science and Glasgow, Scotland, UK 15–18 Oct 2007 2:540–541Google Scholar
  78. Nwilene FE, Nwanze KF, Youdeowei A (2008) Impact of integrated pest management on food and horticultural crops in Africa. Entomol Exp Appl 128:355–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Oerke EC (2006) Crop losses to pests. J Agric Sci 144:31–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Oerke E-C, Dehne W (2004) Safeguarding production-losses in major crops and the role of crop protection. Crop Prot 23:275–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Oerke E, Dehne HW, Schönbeck F, Weber A (1999) Crop production and crop protection: estimated losses in major food and cash crops. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 808Google Scholar
  82. Pautasso MK, Dehnen-Schmutz K, Holdenrieder O, Pietravalle S, Salama N, Jeger MJ, Lange E, Hehl‐Lange S (2010) Plant health and global change—some implications for landscape management. Biol Rev 85:729–755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Pearman PB, Guisan A, Broennimann O, Randin CF (2008) Niche dynamics in space and time. Trends Ecol Evol 23:149–158CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Peters R, Platt H, Hall R, Medina M (1999) Variation in aggressiveness of Canadian isolates of Phytophthora infestans as indicated by their relative abilities to cause potato tuber rot. Plant Dis 83:652–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Peters K, Breitsameter L, Gerowitt B (2014) Impact of climate change on weeds in agriculture: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 34:707–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Petit S, Boursault A, Le Guilloux M, Munier-Jolain N, Reboud X (2011) Weeds in agricultural landscapes. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 31:309–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Phipps RH, Park JR (2002) Environmental benefits of genetically modified crops: global perspectives on their ability to reduce pesticide use. J Anim Feed Sci 11:1–18Google Scholar
  88. Pinstrup-Andersen P (2001) The Future World Food Situation and the Role of Plant Diseases. Plant Health Instructor. http://www.apsnet.org/publications/apsnetfeatures/Pages/WorldFoodSituation.aspx
  89. Pinstrup-Andersen P, Cohen M (1999) Food security in the 21st century: the role of biotechnology. J Futur Stud Strat Think Policy 1:399–409Google Scholar
  90. Rajotte EG, Norton GW, Luther GC, Barrera V, Heong KL (2005) IPM transfer and adoption. In: Norton GW, Heinrichs EA, Luther GC, Irwin ME (eds) Globalizing integrated pest management. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 143–157, 338 pGoogle Scholar
  91. Rashid KMA, Alam SN, Rauf FMA, Talekar NS (2003) Socio-economic parameters of eggplant pest control in Jessore District of Bangladesh. AVRDC-WorldVegetableCenter, TaipeiGoogle Scholar
  92. Rosegrant MW, Cline SA (2003) Global food security: challenges and policies. Science 302:1917–1918CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Sanchez PA, Swaminathan MS (2005) Cutting world hunger in half. Policy forum. Science 307:357–359CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Savary S, Horgan F, Willocquet L, Heong KL (2012) A review of principles for sustainable pest management in rice. Crop Prot 32:54–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Selvaraj S, Ganeshamoorthi P, Pandaraj T (2013) Potential impacts of recent climate change on biological control agents in agro-ecosystem: a review. Int J Biodivers Conserv 5:845–852Google Scholar
  96. Senthilkumar N, Murugan K, Zhang W (2008) Additive interaction of Helicoverpa armigera Nucleopolyhedrosis virus and Azadirachtin. Biocontrol 53:869–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. SP-IPM (Systemwide Program on Integrated Pest Management) (2008) The role of integrated pest management: how IPM contributes to the CGIAR system priorities and millenium development goals. IPM Research Brief No. 5Google Scholar
  98. Srinivasan R (2012) Integrating biopesticides in pest management strategies for tropical vegetable production. J Biopest 5(Supplementary):36–45Google Scholar
  99. Syed AR (1992) Insecticide resistance in the diamondback moth. In: Talekar N (ed) Management of the diamondback moth and other crucifer pests. Proceedings of the second international workshop. Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, p 437–442Google Scholar
  100. The History Place (2000) Irish potato famine; The Great Hunger. http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/famine/hunger.htm
  101. Thomas MB, Blanford S (2003) Thermal biology in insect-parasite interactions. Trends Ecol Evol 18:344–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Thompson L, Macfayden S, Hoffmann A (2010) The effects of climate change on natural enemies of pests. Biol Control 52:296–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tilman D, Fargione J, Wolff B, D’Antonio C, Dobson A, Howarth R, Schindler D, Schlesinger W, Simberloff D, Swackhamer D (2001) Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change. Science 292:281–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. UC Davis (2002) UC Davis research thwarts tomato virus. UC Davis News and Information, 23 Aug 2002Google Scholar
  105. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) (1993) USDA programs related to integrated pest management. USDA Program Aid 1506. Agricultural Research Service, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  106. Walther G-R, Post E, Convey P, Menzel A, Parmesan C, Beebee TJC, Fromentin J-M, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Bairlein F (2002) Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 416:389–395CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Westermann PR, Diesterheft J, Gerowitt B (2012) Phenology of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.) grown in northern Germany. Julius Kuhn Archiv 434:595–600Google Scholar
  108. Wilby A, Thomas MB (2002) Natural enemy diversity patterns of pest emergence with agricultural intensification. Letters 5:353–360Google Scholar
  109. Woodward FI, Cramer W (1996) Plant functional types and climatic changes: introduction. J Veg Sci 76:306–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Yoon CK (2000) Simple method found to vastly increase crop yields. Science, 22 August. New York Times www.nytimes.com/library/national/science/082200sci-gm-rice.html
  111. Zhu Y, Chen H, Fan J, Wang Y, Li Y, Chen J, Fan J, Yang S, Hu L, Leung H, Mew T, Teng P, Wang Z, Mundt C (2000) Genetic diversity and disease control in rice. Nature 406:718–722CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IPM Innovation Lab, Asia Program ManagerLincolnUSA
  2. 2.IPM Innovation Lab, OIRED, Virginia TechBlacksburgUSA

Personalised recommendations