Advertisement

The Evolution of Text Annotation Frameworks

  • Graham WilcockEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter outlines the evolution of linguistic annotation frameworks. The aim is tutorial, describing older approaches that introduced basic ideas before showing how their various contributions have been combined and integrated into more modern frameworks. After a summary of typical annotation tasks and some open source tools that can perform them, we present two older ways to organize the tools into pipelines that ensure the annotation tasks are done in the correct order, first using traditional Linux scripts, then XML-based Ant buildfiles which give independence across operating systems. Manual and automatic annotation processes were integrated in WordFreak, which supported interactive visualization and editing of annotations through its graphical user interface, and also used a stand-off XML annotation format. These developments (pipeline configuration, platform independence, graphical interface, stand-off XML mark up) were successfully integrated into GATE and UIMA, the main large-scale modern annotation frameworks. UIMA added a type system that supports automatic validation of inputs and outputs between components in the pipeline. We present examples from both GATE and UIMA, and illustrate interoperability between frameworks with another older approach using XSLT transformations. The chapter ends by discussing the differences between annotation toolkits and annotation frameworks.

Keywords

Annotation tasks Annotation tools Annotation pipelines Annotation frameworks GATE UIMA 

References

  1. 1.
    Bird, S., Klein, E., Loper, E.: Natural Language Processing with Python. O’Reilly, Beijing (2009)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cunningham, H., Maynard, D., Bontcheva, K., et al.: Text Processing with GATE. University of Sheffield Department of Computer Science, Sheffield (2011)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ferrucci, D., Lally, A.: Building an example application with the unstructured information management architecture. IBM Syst. J. 43(3), 455–475 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ingersoll, G., Morton, T., Farris, A.: Taming Text: How to Find, Organize, and Manipulate It. Manning Publications, Shelter Island (2011)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morton, T., LaCivita, J.: Wordfreak: an open tool for linguistic annotation. In: Proceedings of HLT-NAACL 2003, Demonstrations, pp. 17–18. Edmonton (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ratnaparkhi, A.: A simple introduction to maximum entropy models for natural language processing. Institute for Research in Cognitive Science, University of Pennsylvania, Technical report (1997)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wilcock, G.: Annotation interchange with XSLT. In: Proceedings of the Conference of the German Society for Computational Linguistics 2009, pp. 265–268. Potsdam (2009)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wilcock, G.: Introduction to Linguistic Annotation and Text Analytics. Morgan and Claypool, San Rafael (2009)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wilcock, G.: Shallow parsing with Apache UIMA. In: Proceedings of the Conference of the Pacific Association for Computational Linguistics 2009, pp. 23–27. Sapporo (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations