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Igneous Layering in Basaltic Magma Chambers

  • O. Namur
  • Bénédicte Abily
  • Alan E. Boudreau
  • Francois Blanchette
  • John W. M. Bush
  • Georges Ceuleneer
  • B. Charlier
  • Colin H. Donaldson
  • Jean-Clair Duchesne
  • M. D. Higgins
  • D. Morata
  • Troels F. D. Nielsen
  • B. O’Driscoll
  • K. N. Pang
  • Thomas Peacock
  • Carl J. Spandler
  • Atsushi Toramaru
  • I.V. Veksler
Part of the Springer Geology book series (SPRINGERGEOL)

Abstract

Layering is a common feature in mafic and ultramafic layered intrusions and generally consists of a succession of layers characterized by contrasted mineral modes and/or mineral textures, including grain size and orientation and, locally, changing mineral compositions. The morphology of the layers is commonly planar, but more complicated shapes are observed in some layered intrusions. Layering displays various characteristics in terms of layer thickness, homogeneity, lateral continuity, stratigraphic cyclicity, and the sharpness of their contacts with surrounding layers. It also often has similarities with sedimentary structures such as cross-bedding, trough structures or layer termination. It is now accepted that basaltic magma chambers mostly crystallize in situ in slightly undercooled boundary layers formed at the margins of the chamber. As a consequence, most known existing layering cannot be ascribed to a simple crystal settling process. Based on detailed field relationships, geochemical analyses as well as theoretical and experimental studies, other potential mechanisms have been proposed in the literature to explain the formation of layered igneous rocks. In this study, we review important mechanisms for the formation of layering, which we classify into dynamic and non-dynamic layer-forming processes.

Dynamic processes occur during filling of the magma chamber or during its crystallization. They include differential settling or flotation of crystals with contrasted densities and/or grain sizes, flow segregation of crystal-laden magma and crystal segregation during convective liquid movement into the magma chamber. Double diffusive convection, which produces a stratified liquid column in the magma chamber, can also produce layering. Other dynamic processes include magma injection into the chamber, which results in magma stratification or magma mixing, and silicate liquid immiscibility either in the main magma chamber or within the solidifying crystal mush.

Non-dynamic layer-forming processes mainly include rapid changes in intensive conditions of crystallization (e.g. pressure, oxygen fugacity) that disrupt and change the stable liquidus assemblages, and transitory excursions about cotectic curves. Layering can also result from variation in nucleation rates and from mineral reorganization in a crystal mush through grain rotation, dissolution-precipitation due to initial heterogeneity in terms of grain size distribution, mineral modes or differential pressure. Many of these processes are driven by dissipation of energy and can be referred to as equilibration or self-organization processes.

Keywords

Dynamic Non-dynamic Sedimentary features Fluid dynamics Dissipation of energy 

Notes

Acknowledgments

ON was supported by a Junior Research Fellowship from Magdalene College (University of Cambridge) and by a von Humboldt Fellowship (University of Hannover). This work has benefited from discussions with Madeleine Humphreys, Marian Holness, Jacqueline Vander Auwera, Richard Wilson and Brian Robins. The authors would like to thank J. Koepke, C. Li, S.A. Morse, R. Latypov, E. Ripley and B. Upton who kindly accepted to share field photographs.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Namur
    • 1
  • Bénédicte Abily
    • 2
  • Alan E. Boudreau
    • 3
  • Francois Blanchette
    • 4
  • John W. M. Bush
    • 5
  • Georges Ceuleneer
    • 2
  • B. Charlier
    • 6
  • Colin H. Donaldson
    • 7
  • Jean-Clair Duchesne
    • 6
  • M. D. Higgins
    • 8
  • D. Morata
    • 9
  • Troels F. D. Nielsen
    • 10
  • B. O’Driscoll
    • 11
    • 12
  • K. N. Pang
    • 13
  • Thomas Peacock
    • 14
  • Carl J. Spandler
    • 15
  • Atsushi Toramaru
    • 16
  • I.V. Veksler
    • 17
  1. 1.Institute of Mineralogy, University of HannoverHannoverGermany
  2. 2.CNRS-UMR 5563, GET, OMPUniversity of ToulouseToulouseFrance
  3. 3.Division of Earth and Ocean SciencesNicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke UniversityDurhamUSA
  4. 4.School of Natural Sciences, University of California MercedAtwaterUSA
  5. 5.Department of MathematicsMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  6. 6.Department of GeologyUniversity of LiegeSart TilmanBelgium
  7. 7.School of Geography and GeosciencesUniversity of St. AndrewsSt. AndrewsUK
  8. 8.Sciences de la TerreUniversité du Québec à ChicoutimiChicoutimiCanada
  9. 9.Departamento de Geología & Andean Geothermal Center of Excellence (CEGA, Fondap-CONICYT)Facultad de Ciencias Físicas Matemáticas, Universidad de ChileSantiagoChile
  10. 10.Geological Survey of Denmark and GreenlandCopenhagenDenmark
  11. 11.School of Physical and Geographical SciencesKeele UniversityKeeleUK
  12. 12.The University of Manchester School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Science (SEAES)ManchesterUK
  13. 13.Department of GeosciencesNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiChina
  14. 14.Department of Mechanical EngineeringMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  15. 15.School of Earth and Environmental SciencesJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  16. 16.Department of Earth and Planetary SciencesKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  17. 17.Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for GeosciencesPotsdamGermany

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