Taxonomic Diversity and Morphological Disparity of Paleozoic Ammonoids

  • Dieter Korn
  • Christian Klug
  • Sonny A. Walton
Part of the Topics in Geobiology book series (TGBI, volume 44)


The Ammonoidea are well represented in terms of numbers of species over a large range of time and they have survived many extinction events. The time interval from the Early Devonian through to the Triassic has seen ammonoid groups evolve and become extinct. The evolutionary history of the Paleozoic ammonoids was punctuated by some extinction events with near extinction events and subsequent recoveries. A Principal Components Analysis (PCA) based on the conch width index (CWI), umbilical width index (UWI) and whorl expansion rate (WER) parameters from 4834 ammonoid species of Devonian to Triassic age produced an empirical morphospace this time interval. The morphospace of Paleozoic ammonoids shows some subtle changes between the periods, but generally, the occupied area is remarkably similar.


Ammonoidea Taxonomic diversity Morphological disparity Devonian Carboniferous Permian 



CK thanks the Swiss National Science Foundation for supporting the research that produced some of the results reviewed herein (SNF project numbers 200021-113956/1, 200020-25029, and 200020-132870). We thank Royal H. Mapes and Kenneth De Baets for reviewing the ms.


  1. Barrande J (1865) Système Silurien du centre de la Bohême. I. Vol. II. Céphalopodes. Praha, ParisGoogle Scholar
  2. Becker RT (1993a) Anoxia, eustatic changes, and Upper Devonian to lowermost Carboniferous global ammonoid diversity. In: House MR (ed) The Ammonoidea: environment ecology evolutionary change. Syst Assoc spec vol 47:115–163Google Scholar
  3. Becker RT (1993b) Stratigraphische Gliederung und Ammonoideen-Faunen im Nehdenium (Oberdevon II) von Europa und Nord-Afrika Cour Forschungsinst Senck 155:1–405. (Cour Forschungsinst Senck, Series 155)Google Scholar
  4. Becker RT (1995) Taxonomy and evolution of late Famennian Tornocerataceae (Ammonoidea). Berliner geowiss Abh E 16:607–43Google Scholar
  5. Becker RT, House MR (1993) New early Upper Devonian (Frasnian) goniatite genera and the evolution of the “Gephurocerataceae”. Berliner geowiss Abh E 9:111–133Google Scholar
  6. Becker RT, House MR (1994) Kellwasser Events and goniatite successions in the Devonian of the Montagne Noire with comments on possible causations. Cour Forschungsinst Senckenberg 169:45–77Google Scholar
  7. Becker RT, Feist R, Flajs G, House MR, Klapper G (1989) Frasnian-Famennian extinction events in the Devonian at Coumiac, southern France. Comptes rendus de l’Académie des Sciences 309:259–266Google Scholar
  8. Becker RT, House MR, Kirchgasser WT (1993) Devonian goniatite biostratigraphy and timing of facies movements in the Frasnian of the Canning Basin, Western Australia. In: Hailwood EA, Kidd, RB (eds) High resolution stratigraphy Geol Soc Spec Pub 70:293–321Google Scholar
  9. Bensaïd M (1974) Etude sur des goniatites à la limite du Dévonien moyen et supérieur, du Sud marocain. Notes du Service Géologique du Maroc 36:82–137Google Scholar
  10. Boardman DR, Work DM, Mapes RH, Barrick JE (1994) Biostratigraphy of Middle and Late Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian-Virgilian) ammonoids. Kansas Geological Survey bulletin 232: 1–121Google Scholar
  11. Bockwinkel J, Ebbighausen V (2006) A new ammonoid fauna from the Gattendorfia-Eocanites Genozone of the Anti-Atlas (Early Carboniferous; Morocco). Fossil Rec 9:87–129Google Scholar
  12. Bockwinkel J, Becker RT, Ebbighausen V (2009) Upper Givetian ammonoids from dar kaoua (Tafilalt, SE Anti-Atlas, Morocco). Berl paläobiol Abh 10:61–128Google Scholar
  13. Bockwinkel J, Korn D, Ebbighausen V (2010) The ammonoids from the Argiles de Timimoun of Timimoun (Early and Middle Visean; Gourara, Algeria). Fossil Rec 13:215–278Google Scholar
  14. Bockwinkel J, Becker RT, Ebbighausen V (2013) Late Givetian ammonoids from Hassi Nebech (Tafilalt Basin, Anti-Atlas, southern Morocco). Fossil Rec 16:5–65Google Scholar
  15. Bogoslovsky BI (1958) Devonskie ammonoidei Rudnogo Altaya. Trudy Paleontolog Inst Akad Nauk SSSR 64:1–155Google Scholar
  16. Bogoslovsky BI (1969) Devonskie ammonoidei I Agoniatity. Trudy Paleontolog Inst Akad Nauk SSSR 124:1–341Google Scholar
  17. Bogoslovsky BI (1971) Devonskie ammonoidei. II. Goniatity. Trudy Paleontolog Inst Akad Nauk SSSR 127:1–228Google Scholar
  18. Bogoslovsky BI (1981) Devonski ammonoidei, III. Klimenii (Podotryad Gonioclymeniina). Trudy Paleontolog Inst Akad Nauk SSSR 191:1–122Google Scholar
  19. Brayard A, Escarguel G, Bucher H, Monnet C, Brühwiler T, Goudemand N et al (2009) Good genes and good luck: ammonoid diversity and the end-Permian mass extinction. Science 325:1118–1121Google Scholar
  20. Buggisch W (1991) The global Frasnian-Famennian Kellwasser event. Geol Rundsch 80:49–72Google Scholar
  21. Chlupáč I, Turek V (1983) Devonian goniatites from the Barrandian area, Czechoslovakia. Rozpravy Ústàedního ústavu geologického 46:1–159Google Scholar
  22. Clarke JM (1899) The Naples fauna (fauna with Manticoceras intumescens) in Western New York. New York State Museum Annual Report 50:31–161Google Scholar
  23. Clausen C-D (1969) Oberdevonische Cephalopoden aus dem Rheinischen Schiefergebirge. II. Gephuroceratidae, Beloceratidae. Palaeontogr A 132:95–178Google Scholar
  24. Czarnocki J (1989) Klimenie Gór Swietokrzyskich. Prace Panstwowego Instytutu Geologicznego 127:1–91Google Scholar
  25. De Baets K, Klug C, Korn D (2009) Anetoceratinae (Ammonoidea, Early Devonian) from the Eifel and Harz Mountains (Germany), with a revision of their genera. N Jahrb Geol Paläont Abh 252:361–376Google Scholar
  26. De Baets K, Klug C, Korn D, Bartels C, Poschmann M (2013) Emsian Ammonoidea and the age of the Hunsrück Slate (Rhenish Mountains, Western Germany). Palaeontogr A 299:1–113Google Scholar
  27. Delépine G (1940) Les goniatites du Dinantien de la Belgique. Mém Museé Royal d`Histoire Naturelle de Belgique 91:1–91Google Scholar
  28. Delépine G (1941) Les goniatites du Carbonifère du Maroc et des confins Algéro-Marocains du sud (Dinantien-Westphalien). Notes et mémoires, Service Géologique, Protectorat de la République Française au Maroc, Direction de la Production Industrielle et des Mines, Division des Mines et de la Géologie Republique francaise Maroc 56:1–111Google Scholar
  29. Dommergues JL, Laurin B, Meister C (2001) The recovery and radiation of Early Jurassic ammonoids: morphologic versus palaeobiogeographical patterns. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 165:195–213Google Scholar
  30. Ebbighausen V, Bockwinkel J (2007) Tournaisian (Early Carboniferous/Mississippian) ammonoids from the Ma’der Basin (Anti-Atlas, Morocco). Fossil Rec 10:125–163Google Scholar
  31. Ebbighausen V, Korn D, Bockwinkel J (2010) The ammonoids from the Dalle a Merocanites of Timimoun (Late Tournaisian-Early Visean; Gourara, Algeria). Fossil Rec 13:153–202Google Scholar
  32. Ebbighausen V, Becker RT, Bockwinkel J (2011) Emsian and Eifelian ammonoids from Oufrane, eastern Dra Valley (Anti-Atlas, Morocco)—taxonomy, stratigraphy and correlation. N Jahrb Geol Paläont Abh 259:313–379Google Scholar
  33. Erben HK (1964) Die Evolution der ältesten Ammonoidea. I. N Jahrb Geol Paläont Abh 120:107–212Google Scholar
  34. Foord AH (1901) Monograph of the Carboniferous Cephalopoda of Ireland, Part IV, containing the families Solenocheilidae (concluded) and Glyphioceratidae. Palaeontogr Soc 55:127–146Google Scholar
  35. Foord AH (1903) Monograph of the Carboniferous Cephalopoda of Ireland, Part V, containing the families Glyphioceratidae (concluded) and Prolecanitidae, with title-page and index. Palaeontogr Soc 57:147–234Google Scholar
  36. Foote M (1994) Morphological disparity in Ordovician-Devonian crinoids and the early saturation of morphological space. Paleobiology 20:320–344Google Scholar
  37. Foote M (2000) Origination and extinction components of taxonomic diversity: general problems. Paleobiology 26:74–102Foote M and Sepkoski JJ (1999) Absolute measures of the completeness of the fossil record. Nature 398:415–417Google Scholar
  38. Gemmellaro GG (1887) La Fauna dei calcari con Fusulina della valle del Fiume Sosio nella Provincia di Palermo. G Sci Nat ed Econ 19:1–106Google Scholar
  39. Gemmellaro GG (1888) La Fauna dei Calcari con Fusulina della valle del Fiume Sosio (nella Provincia di Palermo), Appendice. G Sci nat ed econ 20:9–36Google Scholar
  40. Glenister BF (1958) Upper Devonian ammonoids from the Manticoceras Zone, Fitzroy Basin, Western Australia. J Paleontol 32:50–96Google Scholar
  41. Glenister BF, Furnish WM (1981) Permian ammonoids. In: House MR, Senior JR (ed) The Ammonoidea. Syst Assoc spec vol 18:49–64Google Scholar
  42. Gordon MJ (1965) Carboniferous cephalopods of Arkansas. Geol survey prof pap 460:1–322Google Scholar
  43. Gordon MJ (1986) Late Kinderhookian (early Mississippian) ammonoids of the Western United States. J Paleontol Mem 19:1–36Google Scholar
  44. Gottobrio WE, Saunders WB (2005) The clymeniid dilemma: functional implications of the dorsal siphuncle in clymeniid ammonoids. Paleobiology 31:233–252Google Scholar
  45. Haniel CA (1915) Die Cephalopoden der Dyas von Timor. In: Wanner J (ed) Paläontologie von Timor 3(6):1–153Google Scholar
  46. Holzapfel E (1889) Die Cephalopoden-führenden Kalke des unteren Carbon von Erdbach-Breitscheid bei Herborn. Palaeontol Abh NF 5:1–74Google Scholar
  47. House MR (1970) On the origin of the clymenid ammonoids. Palaeontology 13:664–676Google Scholar
  48. House MR (1981) Early ammonoids in space and time. In: House MR, Senior JR (eds) The Ammonoidea. Syst Assoc Spec vol 18:359–367Google Scholar
  49. House MR (1985) Correlation of mid-Palaeozoic ammonoid evoutionary events with global sedimentary perturbations. Nature 313:17–22Google Scholar
  50. House MR (1989) Ammonoid extinction events. Phil Trans Royal Soc Lond B 325:307–326Google Scholar
  51. House MR (2002) Strength, timing, setting and cause of mid-Palaeozoic extinctions. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 181:5–25Google Scholar
  52. House MR, Kirchgasser WT (2008) Late Devonian goniatites (Cephalopoda, Ammonoidea) from New York State. Bull Am Paleontol 374:1–288Google Scholar
  53. Jablonski D (1986) Background and mass extinctions—the alternation of macroevolutionary regimes. Science 231:129–133Google Scholar
  54. Jablonski D (2002) Survival without recovery after mass extinctions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:8139–8144Google Scholar
  55. Jablonski D (2005) Mass extinctions and macroevolution. Paleobiology 31:192–210Google Scholar
  56. Kayser E (1884) Die Orthocerasschiefer zwischen Balduinstein und Laurenburg an der Lahn. Jahrbuch der Königlich Preußischen Geologischen Landesanstalt und Bergakademie 1883:1–56Google Scholar
  57. Klug C (2001a) Early Emsian ammonoids from the eastern Anti-Atlas (Morocco) and their succession. Paläontol Z 74:479–515Google Scholar
  58. Klug C (2001b) Life cycles of some Devonian ammonoids. Lethaia 34:215–233Google Scholar
  59. Klug C (2002a) Quantitative stratigraphy and taxonomy of late Emsian and Eifelian ammonoids of the eastern Anti-Atlas (Morocco). Cour Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 238:1–109Google Scholar
  60. Klug C (2002b) Conch parameters and ecology of Emsian and Eifelian ammonoids from the Tafilalt (Morocco) and their relation to global events. Ber Geol Bundesanst 57:523–538Google Scholar
  61. Klug C, Korn D (2002) Occluded umbilicus in the Pinacitinae (Devonian) and its palaeoecological implications. Palaeontology 45:917–931Google Scholar
  62. Klug C, Schatz W, Korn D (2005) Morphological fluctuations of ammonoid assemblages from the Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic) of the Germanic Basin—indicators of their ecology, extinctions, and immigrations. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 221:7–34Google Scholar
  63. Klug C, Döring S, Korn D, Ebbighausen V (2006) The Visean sedimentary succession at the Gara el Itima (Anti-Atlas, Morocco) and its ammonoid faunas. Fossil Rec 9:3–60Google Scholar
  64. Konovalova VA (2005) Ammonoid evolution at the Tournaisian-Visean boundary. Paleontol J Suppl 39:538–557Google Scholar
  65. Korn D (1984) Die Goniatiten der Stockumer Imitoceras-Kalklinsen (Ammonoidea; Devon/Karbon-Grenze). Cour Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 67:71–89Google Scholar
  66. Korn D (1988) Die Goniatiten des Kulmplattenkalkes (Cephalopoda, Ammonoidea; Unterkarbon; Rheinisches Schiefergebirge). Geologie und Palantologie in Westf 11:1–293Google Scholar
  67. Korn D (1992) Relationship between shell form, septal construction and suture line in clymeniid cephalopods (Ammonoidea; Upper Devonian). N Jahrb Geol Paläont Abh 185:115–130Google Scholar
  68. Korn D (1993) The ammonoid faunal change near the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. Ann Soc Géologique Belg 115:581–593Google Scholar
  69. Korn D (1994) Devonische und karbonische Prionoceraten (Cephalopoda, Ammonoidea) aus dem Rheinischen Schiefergebirge. Geol Paläont in Westf 30:1–85Google Scholar
  70. Korn D (1997a) Evolution of the Goniatitaceae and Visean-Namurian biogeography. Acta Palaeontol Pol 42:177–199Google Scholar
  71. Korn D (1997b) The Palaeozoic ammonoids of the South Portuguese Zone. Memórias do Instituto Geológico e Mineiro 33:1–131Google Scholar
  72. Korn D (1986) Ammonoid evolution in late Famennian and early Tournaisian. Ann Soc Géol Belgique 109:49–54Google Scholar
  73. Korn D (2000) Morphospace occupation of ammonoids over the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. Paläontol Z 74:247–257Google Scholar
  74. Korn D (2001) Morphometric evolution and phylogeny of Palaeozoic ammonoids. Early and Middle Devonian. Acta Geol Pol 51:193–215Google Scholar
  75. Korn D (2012) Quantification of ontogenetic allometry in ammonoids. Evolution & Development 14:501–514Google Scholar
  76. Korn D, Ebbighausen V (2008) The Early Carboniferous (Mississippian) ammonoids from the Chebket el Hamra (Jerada Basin, Morocco). Fossil Rec 11:83–156Google Scholar
  77. Korn D and Ilg A (2007) AMMON. Database of Palaeozoic Ammonoidea.
  78. Korn D, Klug C (2001) Biometric analyses of some Paleozoic ammonoid conchs. Berliner geowiss Abh E 36:173–187Google Scholar
  79. Korn D, Klug C (2002) Ammoneae Devonicae. In: Riegraf W (ed) Fossilium catalogus 1: Animalia. Backhuys, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  80. Korn D, Klug C (2003) Morphological pathways in the evolution of Early and Middle Devonian ammonoids. Paleobiology 29:329–348Google Scholar
  81. Korn D, Klug C (2007) Conch form analysis, variability, morphological disparity, and mode of life of the Frasnian (Late Devonian) ammonoid Manticoceras from Coumiac (Montagne Noire, France). In: Landman NH, Davis RA, Mapes RH (eds) Cephalopods present and past: new insights and fresh perspectives. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  82. Korn D, Klug C (2012) Palaeozoic ammonoids—diversity and development of conch morphology. In: Talent J (ed) Extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time. Earth and life (International year of planet Earth). Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  83. Korn D, Tilsley JW (2002) A well-preserved early Namurian ammonoid fauna with Cravenoceras leion Bisat 1930 from Backdale Mine, Hassop, Derbyshire, England. Proc Yorks Geol Soc 54:111–119Google Scholar
  84. Korn D, Titus AL (2011) Goniatites zone (middle Mississippian) ammonoids of the Antler foreland basin (Nevada, Utah). Bull Geosci 86:107–196Google Scholar
  85. Korn D, Vöhringer E (2004) Allometric growth and intraspecific variability in the basal Carboniferous ammonoid Gattendorfia crassa Schmidt, 1924. Paläontol Z 78:425–432Google Scholar
  86. Korn D, Klug C, Mapes RH (1999) Visean and early Namurian ammonoids from the Tafilalt (Eastern anti-atlas, Morocco). Abh Geol Bundesanst 54:345–375Google Scholar
  87. Korn D, Klug C, Ebbighausen V, Bockwinkel J (2002) Palaeogeographical meaning of a middle Tournaisian ammonoid fauna from Morocco. Geol Palaeontol 36:79–86Google Scholar
  88. Korn D, Bockwinkel J, Ebbighausen V, Klug C (2003) Palaeobiogeographic and evolutionary meaning of an early Late Tournaisian ammonoid fauna from the Tafilalt of Morocco. Acta Palaeontol Pol 48:71–92Google Scholar
  89. Korn D, Belka Z, Fröhlich S, Rücklin M, Wendt J (2004) The youngest African clymeniids (Ammonoidea, Late Devonian)—failed survivors of the Hangenberg Event. Lethaia 37:307–315Google Scholar
  90. Korn D, Bockwinkel J, Ebbighausen V (2007) Tournaisian and Visean ammonoid stratigraphy in North Africa. N Jahrb Geol Paläontol Abh 243:127–148Google Scholar
  91. Korn D, Bockwinkel J, Ebbighausen V (2010a) The ammonoids from the Argiles de Teguentour of Oued Temertasset (early Late Tournaisian; Mouydir, Algeria). Fossil Rec 13:35–152Google Scholar
  92. Korn D, Ebbighausen V, Bockwinkel J (2010b) The ammonoids from the Grès du Kahla supérieur of Timimoun (Middle-early Late Tournaisian; Gourara, Algeria). Fossil Rec 13:13–34Google Scholar
  93. Korn D, Titus AL, Ebbighausen V, Mapes RH, Sudar MN (2012) Early Carboniferous (Mississippian) ammonoid biogeography. Geobios 45:67–77Google Scholar
  94. Korn D, Bockwinkel J, Ebbighausen V, Walton SA (2013a) Rare representatives in the ammonoid fauna from Büdesheim (Cephalopoda, Eifel, Late Devonian) and the role of heterochrony. N Jahrb Geol Paläont Abh 269:111–124Google Scholar
  95. Korn D, Hopkins MJ, Walton SA (2013b) Extinction space—a method for the quantification and classification of changes in morphospace across extinction boundaries. Int J Org Evol 67:2795–2810Google Scholar
  96. Kullmann J (1961) Die Goniatiten des Unterkarbons im Kantabrischen Gebirge (Nordspanien). I. Stratigraphie. Paläontologie der U.O. Goniatitina Hyatt. N Jahrb Geol Paläontol Abh 113:219–326Google Scholar
  97. Kullmann J (1962) Die Goniatiten der Namur-Stufe (Oberkarbon) im Kantabrischen Gebirge, Nordspanien. Abh Akad Wiss Lit Mainz, math-naturwiss Kl 1962:259–377Google Scholar
  98. Kullmann J (1963) Die Goniatiten des Unterkarbons im Kantabrischen Gebirge (Nordspanien). II. Paläontologie der U.O. Prolecanitina Miller & Furnish. Die Altersstellung der Faunen. N Jahrb Geol Paläontol Abh 116:269–324Google Scholar
  99. Kusina LF (1980) Saurskie ammonoidei. Trudy Paleontol Inst Akad Nauk SSSR 181:1–108Google Scholar
  100. Leonova TB (2002) Permian Ammonoids: classification and phylogeny. Paleontol J (Suppl 36):1–114Google Scholar
  101. Leonova TB (2011) Permian ammonoids: biostratigraphic, biogeographical, and ecological analysis. Paleontol J 45:1206–1312Google Scholar
  102. Leonova TB, Dmitriev V (1989) Rannepermskie ammonoidei Yugo-Bostochnogo Pamira. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademiya Nauk SSSR 235:1–198Google Scholar
  103. Leven EY, Leonova TB, Dmitriev VI (1992) Perm’ Darvaz-Zaalaiskoi zony Pamira: fuzulinidy, ammonoidei, stratigrafiya. Trudy Paleontol Inst Rossiysk Akad Nauk 253:1–203Google Scholar
  104. Librovitch LS (1927) Nizhnekamennougolnye golovonogie iz rayona ozera Son-kul (Tyan Shan). Mater obshch prikl geol, Geol kom, vyp 74:1–55Google Scholar
  105. McGhee GRJ (1988) The late Devonian extinction event: evidence for abrupt ecosystem collapse. Paleobiology 14:250–257Google Scholar
  106. McGowan AJ (2007) Does shape matter? Morphological diversity and differential survivorship among Triassic ammonoid genera. Hist Biol 19:157–171Google Scholar
  107. Miller AK (1938) Devonian ammonoids of America. Special papers of the The Geological Society of America, no 14. pp 1–262Google Scholar
  108. Miller AK, Collinson C (1951) Lower Mississippian ammonoids of Missouri. J Paleontol 25:454–487Google Scholar
  109. Miller AK, Furnish WM (1940) Permian ammnoids of the Guadalupe Mountain Region and adjacent areas. Spec pap of the GSA 26:1–242Google Scholar
  110. Moyne S, Neige P (2007) The space-time relationship of taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity in the Middle Jurassic ammonite radiation. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 248:82–95Google Scholar
  111. Nassichuk WW, Furnish WM, Glenister BF (1965) The Permian ammonoids from Arctic Canada. Bull Geol Surv Canada 131:1–56Google Scholar
  112. Nikolaeva SV, Barskov IS (1994) Morphogenetic trends in the evolution of Carboniferous ammonoids. N Jahrb Geol Paläontol Abh 193:401–418Google Scholar
  113. Nikolaeva SV, Bogoslovsky BI (2005) Devonskie ammonoidei: IV. Klimenii (podotryad Clymeniina). Trudy Paleontol Inst Rossiysk Akad Nauk 287:1–214Google Scholar
  114. Okamoto T (1996) Theoretical modeling of ammonoid morphology. In Ammonoid Paleobiology. In: Landman NH, Tanabe K, Davis RA (eds) Ammonoid paleobiology. Topics in geobiology, vol 13. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  115. Pareyn C (1961) Les Massifs Carbonifères du Sahara Sud-Oranais. Tome II. Paléontologie stratigraphique. Publications du Centre de Recherches Sahariennes Sér Géol 1:1–244Google Scholar
  116. Petter G (1959) Goniatites dévoniennes du Sahara. Publications du Service de la Carte géologique de l’Algérie (nouvelle série). Paléontologie 2:1–313Google Scholar
  117. Petter G (1960) Clymènies du Sahara. Publications du Service de la Carte géologique de l’Algérie (nouvelle série). Paléontologie 6:1–58Google Scholar
  118. Plummer FB, Scott G (1937) Upper Paleozoic ammonites in Texas. The geology of texas. Bull Texas Univ 313701:1–516Google Scholar
  119. Popov AV (1968) Vizeyskie ammonoidei cevernogo Tyan-Shanya i ikh stratigraficheskoe zhachenie. Tyan’Shanya Akademiya Nauk Kirgizkoy SSR, Institut Geologii 1–116Google Scholar
  120. Raup DM (1966) Geometric analysis of shell coiling: general problems. J Paleontol 40:1178–1190Google Scholar
  121. Raup DM (1967) Geometric analysis of shell coiling: coiling in ammonoids. J Paleontol 41:43–65Google Scholar
  122. Raup DM, Michelson A (1965) Theoretical morphology of the coiled shell. Science 147:1294–1295Google Scholar
  123. Riley NJ (1996) Mid-Dinantian ammonoids from the Craven Basin, northwest England. Special papers in Palaeontology 53:1–87Google Scholar
  124. Ruan Y-P (1981a) Carboniferous ammonoid faunas from Qixu in Nandan of Guangxi. Mem Nanjing Inst Geol Paleontol Acad Sin 15:153–232Google Scholar
  125. Ruan Y-P (1981b) Devonian and earliest Carboniferous ammonoids from Guangxi and Guizhou. Mem Nanjing Inst Geol Paleontol Acad Sin 15:1–152Google Scholar
  126. Ruzhencev VE (1950) Verkhnekamennougolnye ammonity Urala. Trudy Paleontol Inst Akad Nauk SSSR 29:1–220Google Scholar
  127. Ruzhencev VE (1951) Nizhnepermskie ammonity yuzhnogo Urala. 1. Ammonity sakmarskogo yarusa. Trudy Paleontol Inst Akad Nauk SSSR 33:1–186Google Scholar
  128. Ruzhencev VE (1952) Biostratigrafiya sakmarskogo yarusa v aktyubinskoy oblasti kazakhskoy SSR. Trudy Paleontol Inst Akad Nauk SSSR 52:1–87Google Scholar
  129. Ruzhencev VE (1956) Nizhnepermskiye ammonity Yuzhnogo Urala. II. Ammonity artinskogo yarusa. Trudy Paleontol Inst Akad Nauk SSSR 6:1–275Google Scholar
  130. Ruzhencev VE (1959) Klassifikatsia nadsemeystva Otocerataceae. Paleontol Zh 1959(2):56–67Google Scholar
  131. Ruzhencev VE (1962) Klassifikatsia semeystve Araxoceratidae. Paleontol Zh 1962(4):88–103Google Scholar
  132. Ruzhencev VE (1963) Novye dannye o semeystve Araxoceratidae. Paleontol Zh 1963(3):56–64Google Scholar
  133. Ruzhencev VE, Bogoslovskaya MF (1971) Namyurskiy etap v evolyutsii ammonoidey. Rannenamyurskiye ammonoidei. Trudy Trudy Paleontol Inst Akad Nauk SSSR 133:1–382Google Scholar
  134. Ruzhencev VE, Bogoslovskaya MF (1978) Namyurskiy etap v evolyutsii ammonoidey. Pozdnenamyurskiye ammonoidei. Trudy Paleontol Inst Akad Nauk SSSR 167:1–336Google Scholar
  135. Saunders WB, Swan AWH (1984) Morphology and Morphologic diversity of mid-Carboniferous (Namurian) ammonoids in time and space. Paleobiology 10:195–228Google Scholar
  136. Saunders WB, Work DM (1997) Evolution of shell morphology and suture complexity in Paleozoic prolecanitids, the rootstock of Mesozoic ammonoids. Paleobiology 23:301–325Google Scholar
  137. Saunders WB, Work DM, Nikolaeva SV (1999) Evolution of complexity in paleozoic ammonoid sutures. Science 286:760–763Google Scholar
  138. Saunders WB, Greenfest-Allen E, Work DM, Nikolaeva SV (2008) Morphologic and taxonomic history of Paleozoic ammonoids in time and morphospace. Paleobiology 34:128–154Google Scholar
  139. Schindewolf OH (1933) Vergleichende Morphologie und Phylogenie der Anfangskammern tetrabranchiater Cephalopoden. Eine Studie über Herkunft, Stammesentwicklung und System der niederen Ammoneen. Abh Preuß Geol Landesanst, NF 148:1–115Google Scholar
  140. Schindewolf OH (1951) Über ein neues Vorkommen unterkarbonischer Pericyclus-Schichten im Oberharz. N Jahrb Geol Paläontol Abh 93:23–116Google Scholar
  141. Schmidt H (1924) Zwei Cephalopodenfaunen an der Devon-Carbongrenze im Sauerland. Jahrb Preuß Geol Landesanst 44(1923):98–171Google Scholar
  142. Shevyrev AA (1965) Nadotryad Ammonoidea. In Ruzhencev VE, Sarytcheva TG (eds) Razvitie i smena morskikh organizmov na Rubezhe Paleozoya i Mezozoya. Trudy Paleontol Inst Akad Nauk SSSR 108:166–182Google Scholar
  143. Shevyrev AA (1968) Triasovye ammonoidei Yuga SSSR. Trudy Paleontol Inst Akad Nauk SSSR 119:1–272Google Scholar
  144. Signor PW, Lipps JH (1982) Sampling bias, gradual extinction patterns and catastrophes in the fossil record. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 190:291–296Google Scholar
  145. Simon MS, Korn D, Koenemann S (2010) Disparity fluctuations in Jurassic ammonoids by means of conch geometry. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 292:520–531Google Scholar
  146. Simon MS, Korn D, Koenemann S (2011) Temporal patterns in disparity and diversity of the Jurassic ammonoids of southern Germany. Fossil Rec 14:77–94Google Scholar
  147. Smith JP (1927) Permian ammonoids of Timor. Jaarboek van het Mijnwezen in Nederlandsch-Indie 55(1926):1–58Google Scholar
  148. Villier L, Korn D (2004) Morphological disparity of ammonoids and the mark of Permian mass extinctions. Science 306:264–266Google Scholar
  149. Vöhringer E (1960) Die Goniatiten der unterkarbonischen Gattendorfia-Stufe im Hönnetal (Sauerland). Fortschr Geol Rheinln Westfal 3:107–196Google Scholar
  150. Walliser OH (1985) Natural boundaries and commission boundaries in the Devonian. Cour Forschungsinst Senck 75:401–408Google Scholar
  151. Walliser OH (1996) Global events in the Devonian and Carboniferous. In: Walliser OH (ed) Global events and event stratigraphy in the Phanerozoic. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  152. Wedekind R (1913) Die Goniatitenkalke des unteren Oberdevon von Martenberg bei Adorf. Sitzungsber Ges Naturforsch Freunde Berlin 1913:23–77Google Scholar
  153. Wedekind R (1914) Monographie der Clymenien des Rheinischen Gebirges. Abh Ges Wiss Göttingen, Math-Phy Kl, N F 10(1):1–73Google Scholar
  154. Wedekind R (1918) Die Genera der Palaeoammonoidea (Goniatiten). Mit Ausschluß der Mimoceratidae, Glyphioceratidae und Prolecanitidae. Palaeontography 62:85–184Google Scholar
  155. Wills MA, Briggs DEG, Fortey RA (1994) Disparity as an evolutionary index: a comparison of Cambrian and recent arthropods. Paleobiology 20:93–130Google Scholar
  156. Work DM, Mason CE (2003) Mississippian (middle Osagean) ammonoids from the Nada member of the Borden formation, Kentucky. J Paleontol 77:593–596Google Scholar
  157. Work DM, Mason CE (2004) Mississippian (late Osagean) ammonoids from the New providence shale member of the Borden formation, north-central Kentucky. J Paleontol 78(6):1128–1137Google Scholar
  158. Work DM, Mason CE (2005) Mississippian (early Osagean) cave run lake ammonoid fauna, Borden formation, northeastern Kentucky. J Paleontol 79(4):719–725Google Scholar
  159. Work DM, Nassichuk WW, Richards B (2000) Lower Viséan ammonoids from the lower Mount head formation, East-Central British Columbia. Geol Surv of Canada Bull 541:1–71Google Scholar
  160. Zhao J, Liang X, Zheng Z (1978) Late Permian cephalopods from South China. Palaeontol Sinica 12:1–194 (Series B)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions- und BiodiversitätsforschungBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Paläontologisches Institut und MuseumZürichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations