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Differentiation, Regulation and Function of Th9 Cells

  • Lei Jia
  • Changyou Wu
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 841)

Abstract

Naïve CD4+ T cells are activated and differentiate to distinct lineages of T helper (Th) cells, which are involved in physiological and pathological processes by obtaining the potential to produce different lineage-specific cytokines that mediate adaptive immunity. In the past decade, our knowledge of Th cells has been significantly expanded with the findings of new lineages. Interleukin (IL)-9 producing T cells are recently identified. In consideration of the ability to preferentially secret IL-9, these cells are termed Th9 cells. Given the multiple function of IL-9, Th9 cells participate in the lesion of many diseases, such as allergic inflammation, tumor, and parasitosis. In this chapter, we will focus on the cytokines, co-stimulatory factors, and transcriptional signaling pathways, which regulate Th9 cells development as well as stability, plasticity, and the multiple roles of Th9 cells in vivo.

Keywords

Th9 cell Differentiation Transcription factor Human diseases 

Abbreviations

APC

Antigen presenting cell

IL

Interleukin

CNS

Conserved non-coding sequences

TSS

Transcription starting site

Th

T helper

Treg

Regulatory T cell

iTreg

Inducible regulatory T cell

IFN-γ

Interferon γ

ILC

Innate lymphoid cell

NKT

Natural killer T cell

TGF-β

Transforming growth factor-β

TCR

T cell receptor

PBMC

Peripheral blood mononuclear cell

EAE

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

AHR

Airway Hyper-responsiveness

Der f

Dermatophagoides farina

RA

Rheumatoid Arthritis

MPE

Malignant pleural effusion

AD

Atopic Dermatitis

NF-κB

Nuclear factor κB

PDK1

Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isoenzyme 1

TNFRF

Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily

CGRP

Calcitonin gene-related peptide

PD-L2

Programmed cell death ligand 2

HEL

Hen egg lysozyme

OVA

Ovalbumin

JAK

Janus kinase

STAT

Signal transducer and activator of transcription

GATA

GATA binding protein

IRF

Interferon response factor

CIS

Cytokine-induced SH-2 protein

SOCS

Suppressor of cytokine signaling

Foxp3

Forkhead box protein 3

NICD

Notch intracellular domain

Sfpi

Spleen focus forming virus (SFFV) proviral integration oncogene

HAT

Histone acetyltransferase

HDAC

Histone deacetylase

NFAT

Nuclear factor of activated T cells

PI3K

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

BCL6

B cell lymphoma6

MHC II

Major histocompatibility complex class II

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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control Research of Ministry of Education, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Institute of ImmunologySun Yat-Sen UniversityGuangzhouChina

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