Differentiation, Regulation and Function of Th9 Cells

  • Lei Jia
  • Changyou WuEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 841)


Naïve CD4+ T cells are activated and differentiate to distinct lineages of T helper (Th) cells, which are involved in physiological and pathological processes by obtaining the potential to produce different lineage-specific cytokines that mediate adaptive immunity. In the past decade, our knowledge of Th cells has been significantly expanded with the findings of new lineages. Interleukin (IL)-9 producing T cells are recently identified. In consideration of the ability to preferentially secret IL-9, these cells are termed Th9 cells. Given the multiple function of IL-9, Th9 cells participate in the lesion of many diseases, such as allergic inflammation, tumor, and parasitosis. In this chapter, we will focus on the cytokines, co-stimulatory factors, and transcriptional signaling pathways, which regulate Th9 cells development as well as stability, plasticity, and the multiple roles of Th9 cells in vivo.


Th9 cell Differentiation Transcription factor Human diseases 



Antigen presenting cell




Conserved non-coding sequences


Transcription starting site


T helper


Regulatory T cell


Inducible regulatory T cell


Interferon γ


Innate lymphoid cell


Natural killer T cell


Transforming growth factor-β


T cell receptor


Peripheral blood mononuclear cell


Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis


Airway Hyper-responsiveness

Der f

Dermatophagoides farina


Rheumatoid Arthritis


Malignant pleural effusion


Atopic Dermatitis


Nuclear factor κB


Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isoenzyme 1


Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily


Calcitonin gene-related peptide


Programmed cell death ligand 2


Hen egg lysozyme




Janus kinase


Signal transducer and activator of transcription


GATA binding protein


Interferon response factor


Cytokine-induced SH-2 protein


Suppressor of cytokine signaling


Forkhead box protein 3


Notch intracellular domain


Spleen focus forming virus (SFFV) proviral integration oncogene


Histone acetyltransferase


Histone deacetylase


Nuclear factor of activated T cells


Phosphoinositide 3-kinase


Mitogen-activated protein kinase


B cell lymphoma6


Major histocompatibility complex class II


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control Research of Ministry of Education, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Institute of ImmunologySun Yat-Sen UniversityGuangzhouChina

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