Advertisement

Family Farming: At the Core of the World’s Agricultural History

  • Bruno LoschEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The diversity of agriculture in the world reflects the immense variety of societies and natural environments on the planet. Indeed, agricultural systems range from various types of shifting slash-and-burn practices – sometimes very similar to those of the first sedentary human groups – to quasi-automated agricultures in some regions of the world. These systems present huge gaps in terms of modes of exploitation of natural resources, levels of capital use, productivity and market integration. They reflect various stages of transformation of agriculture depending on their technical level, their integration into globalized markets and the structural changes of national economies around the world. They also echo the transition from agrarian societies – organized around the relationships between rural communities and with their natural environment –, to predominantly urban ones characterized by a high degree of division of labor, where agricultural production is increasingly implemented through processes of artificialization of cultivated areas and the industrialization of the food chain. And yet, in absolute terms, there have never been as many farmers globally as there are today.

Keywords

World Trade Organization Agricultural Policy Productivity Gain Family Farming Agrarian Society 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Bairoch, P. (1989). Les trois révolutions agricoles du monde développé: Rendements et productivité de 1800 à 1985. Économies, sociétés, civilisations, 2, 317–353.Google Scholar
  2. Barthélémy, D., Delorme, H., Losch, B., Moreddu, C., & Nieddu, M. (Eds.). (2003, March 21–22). La multifonctionnalité de l’activité agricole et sa reconnaissance par les politiques publiques: Actes du colloque international de la Société française d’économie rurale. Dijon: Educagri.Google Scholar
  3. Bélières, J. -F., Bonnal, P., Bosc, P. -M., Losch, B., Marzin, J., & Sourisseau, J. -M. (2013). Les agricultures familiales du monde. Définitions, contributions et politiques publiques (306 pp.). Montpellier: Cirad, AFD, MAAF, MAE.Google Scholar
  4. Bertrand, R. (2011). L’Histoire à parts égales. Récits d’une rencontre Orient-Occident (664 pp.). Paris: Seuil.Google Scholar
  5. Bonnal, P., Bosc, P. -M., Diaz, J. M., & Losch, B. (2004). Multifuncionalidad de la agricultura y Nueva Ruralidad ¿Reestructuración de las políticas públicas a la hora de la globalización? In E. Pérez Correa, & M. A. Farah Quijano (Eds.), Desarollo rural y nueva ruralidad en América Latina y la Unión Europea (pp. 19–41). Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Facultad de Estudios Ambientales y Rurales, Departamento de Desarrollo Rural y Regional, Maestría en Desarrollo Rural.Google Scholar
  6. Boserup, E. (1965). The conditions of agricultural growth. The economics of agriculture under population pressure. London: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  7. Braudel, F. (1979). Civilisation matérielle, économie et capitalisme. XV e -XVIII e siècle. Paris: Armand Colin.Google Scholar
  8. Braudel, F. (1993). Grammaire des civilisations (1re ed. 1963, 625 pp.). Paris: Flammarion.Google Scholar
  9. Chang, H.-J. (2002). Kicking away the ladder: Development strategy in historical perspective. London: Anthem Press.Google Scholar
  10. Chauveau, J. -P., & Yung, J. -M. (eds). (1995). Innovation et sociétés. Quelles agricultures ? Quelles innovations ? II. Les diversités de l’innovation. In Actes du Séminaire d’économie rurale, 14, 13–16 septembre 1993. Montpellier: Cirad.Google Scholar
  11. Copans, J. (1987). Classes, État, marches. Une crise conceptuelle opportune. Politique africaine, (26), 2–14.Google Scholar
  12. Coulomb, P., Delorme, H., Hervieu, B., Jollivet, M., & Lacombe, P. (dir.). (1990). Les agriculteurs et la politique. Paris: Presses de la Fondation nationale des sciences politiques.Google Scholar
  13. Dorin, B., Hourcade, J. -C., & Benoit-Cattin, M. (2013). A world without farmers? The Lewis Path revisited. Working Papers, Cired, 47-2013. http://www.centre-cired.fr/IMG/pdf/CIREDWP-201347.pdf. Retrieved 19 Mar 2014.
  14. Duby, G. (1962). L’économie rurale et la vie des campagnes dans l’Occident médiéval. Paris: Aubier.Google Scholar
  15. Duby, G. (1978). Les trois ordres ou l’imaginaire du féodalisme. Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
  16. Dumézil, G. (1968). Mythes et épopée. 1. L’idéologie des trois fonctions dans les épopées des peuples indo-européens. Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
  17. Friedmann, H. (2013). Farming households in 1973 and today: One path for agriculture or many paths for farming? Processed.Google Scholar
  18. Gabas, J.-J., & Losch, B. (2008). La fabrique en trompe-l’œil de l’émergence. In L’enjeu mondial. Les pays émergents (C. Jaffrelot, dir.) (pp. 25–40). Paris: Presses de Sciences Po-L’express.Google Scholar
  19. Gellner, E. (1989). Nations et nationalisme (208 pp.). Paris: Payot.Google Scholar
  20. Giraud, P. -N. (1996). L’inégalité du monde. Économie du monde contemporain (352 pp.). Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
  21. Godelier, M. (2004). Métamorphoses de la parenté (678 pp.). Paris: Fayard.Google Scholar
  22. Goody, J. (2006). The theft of history (342 pp.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Gordon Childe, V. (1949). L’Aube de la civilisation européenne (1re ed. 1925, 384 pp.). Paris: Payot.Google Scholar
  24. Grataloup, C. (2007). Géohistoire de la mondialisation. Le temps long du monde (256 pp.). Paris: Armand Colin.Google Scholar
  25. Hatton, T. J., & Williamson, G. W. (2005). Global Migration and the World Economy. Two centuries of Policy and Performance. Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  26. Krausmann, F. (2011). The global metabolic transition: A historical overview. In F. Krausmann (Ed.), The socio-metabolic transition. Long term historical trends and patterns in global material and energy use. Social Ecology Working Paper 131. Vienna: Institute of Social Ecology.Google Scholar
  27. Laurent, C., & Rémy, J. (2000). L’exploitation agricole en perspective. Courrier de l’environnement de l’Inra, 41, 5–22.Google Scholar
  28. Losch, B. (2012a). Le défi de l’emploi, le rôle de l’agriculture et les impasses du débat international sur le développement. Note préparatoire au colloque Évolution du marché international du travail, impacts des exclusions paysannes, Conseil économique, social et environnemental, 16 October 2012. Paris: Cirad-AFD.Google Scholar
  29. Mazoyer, M. (2001). Protéger la paysannerie pauvre dans un contexte de mondialisation. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  30. Mazoyer, M., & Roudart, L. (1997). Histoire des agricultures du monde, du néolithique à la crise contemporaine (546 pp.). Paris: Le Seuil.Google Scholar
  31. McMillan, M., & Rodrik, D. (2011). Globalization, structural change, and productivity growth. NBER Working Paper no. 17143.Google Scholar
  32. Meillassoux, C. (1975). Femmes, greniers et capitaux (251 pp.). Paris: Maspero.Google Scholar
  33. Mendras, H. (1967). La fin des paysans. Paris: SEDEIS, Futuribles.Google Scholar
  34. Mollard, E., & Walter, A. (Eds.). (2008). Agricultures singulières (344 pp.). Paris: IRD Éditions.Google Scholar
  35. Moulin, A. (1992). Les paysans dans la société française. De la Révolution à nos jours. Paris: Le Seuil.Google Scholar
  36. Orsini, F., Kahane, R., Nono-Womdim, R., & Gianquinto, G. (2013). Urban agriculture in the developing world: A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 33(4), 695–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pomeranz, K. (2000). The great divergence. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Reardon, T., & Timmer, C. P. (2007). Transformation of markets for agricultural output. In R. Evenson, & P. Pingali (Eds.), Developing countries since 1950: How has thinking changed? Handbook of agricultural economics (ed. 1), 3(1), 2807–2855. Elsevier.Google Scholar
  39. Rist, G. (1996). Le développement. Histoire d’une croyance occidentale. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po.Google Scholar
  40. Rostow, W. W. (1960). The stages of economic growth: A non-communist manifesto. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Shanin, T. (1974). The nature and logic of peasant economy. Journal of Peasant Studies, 1–2, 186–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Smil, V. (1991). General energetics: Energy in the biosphere and civilization. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  43. Taylor, A. (2001). American colonies. The settling of north America (544 pp.). New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  44. Timmer, C. P. (2009). A world without agriculture: The structural transformation in historical perspective (83 pp.). Washington, DC: The American Enterprise Institute Press.Google Scholar
  45. Todd, E. (2011). L’origine des systèmes familiaux. 1. L’Eurasie (768 pp.). coll. NRF Essais, Gallimard.Google Scholar
  46. Wallerstein, I. (1989). The modern world-system. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  47. Wrigley, E. A. (1988). Continuity Chance and Change. The Characters of the Industrial Revolution in England. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Éditions Quæ 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ESCIRADMontpellierFrance

Personalised recommendations