Advertisement

Understanding and Conceptualizing Risk in Large-Scale Social-Ecological Systems

  • Helen Elizabeth AllisonEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Many of the most serious global impacts have emerged from the interaction of human activities in the scientific-technical-industrial system. Changing from largely disciplinary science to multi- and ultimately interdisciplinary science and management requires a new ontology and epistemology to be negotiated to help us understand complexity within the social context and how this relates to risk. This paradigmatic shift currently taking place in science is contributing to the development of new theory and practice. Systems thinking is often considered key to solving ill-defined complex environmental and social problems displaying uncertainty and increased risk. But it is unclear what this thinking is or would be and how it might be progressed in future. For the necessary change to occur I suggest an important step is to integrate the diversity of knowledge through developing a framework to share information across multiple ontologies and epistemologies to gain acceptance across the sciences.

Keywords

Conceptual Change Epistemological Belief Risk Governance Personal Epistemology Gene Ontology Consortium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ackoff, R.L. 1999. Ackoff’s best: His classic writings on management. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, M.A. 2002. The Kondratiev cycle. A generational interpretation. Lincoln: Writers Club Press.Google Scholar
  3. Allan, C., and A. Curtis. 2005. Nipped in the bud: Why regional scale adaptive management is not blooming. Environmental Management 363: 414–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allison, H. 2011. Mixed ontologies and epistemologies in resilience. Addressing some of the criticisms about resilience. Paper presented at the Resilience 2011 Conference. Resilience, Adaptation and Transformation in Turbulent Times. Arizona State University, Arizona, USA.Google Scholar
  5. Allison, H., and R. Hobbs. 2006. Science and policy in natural resource management: Understanding system complexity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Allison, H., and R. Hobbs. 2010. Natural resource management at four social scales: Psychological type matters. Environmental Management 45: 590–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ball, I.L. 2009. The sum of us: Australian data on the distribution of psychological types. Australian Psychological Type Review 11(1): 23–25.Google Scholar
  8. Bazerman, M.H., and M.D. Watkins. 2004. Predictable surprises: The disasters you should have seen coming, and how to prevent them. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bendixen, L.D., and D.C. Rule. 2004. An integrative approach to personal epistemology: A guiding model. Educational Psychologist 391: 69–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berens, L.V. 2001. Understanding yourself and others. An introduction to interaction styles. Huntington Beach: Telos Publications.Google Scholar
  11. Berkes, F., J. Colding, and C. Folke (eds.). 2003. Navigating social-ecological systems. Building resilience for complexity and change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Beyler, J., and R.R. Schmeck. 1992. Assessment of individual differences in preferences for holistic-analytic strategies: Evaluation of some commonly available instruments. Educational and Psychological Measurement 523: 709–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blann, K., and S. Light. 2000. The path of last resort. Adaptive environmental assessment and management AEAM Nine heuristics of highly adaptive managers. Retrieved from: http://www.iatp.org/AEAM/primer.htm.
  14. Boholm, A. 2009. Speaking of risks: A matter of context. Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture 33: 335–354.Google Scholar
  15. Botkin, D.B. 1990. Discordant harmonies: A new ecology for the twenty-first century. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bradshaw, G.A., and M. Bekoff. 2001. Ecology and social responsibility: Re-embodiment of science. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16(8): 460–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Briggs-Myers, I. 1999. Introduction to type. A guide to understanding your results on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®, 6th ed., by Linda K. Kirby and Katherine D. Myers. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc./Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  18. Brooks, L. 1978. Nonanalytic concept formation and memory for instances. In Cognition and categorization, ed. E. Rosch and B.B. Lloyd, 169–211. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  19. Bruce, A., C. Lyall, J. Tait, and R. Williams. 2004. Interdisciplinary integration in Europe: The case of the fifth framework programme. Futures 36: 457–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Burrell, G., and G. Morgan. 1979. Sociological paradigms and organizational analysis: Elements of the sociology of corporate life. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  21. Cameron, K.S., and R.E. Quinn. 1999. Diagnosing and changing organizational culture: Based on the competing values framework. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass, a Wiley imprint.Google Scholar
  22. Capper, P., and B. Williams. 2004. Enhancing evaluation using systems concepts. American Evaluation Association. http://users.actrix.co.nz/bobwill/activity.doc. Accessed 3 Aug 2014.
  23. Carry, A. 1996. Uncertainty in the writings of Kondratiev. In Uncertainty in economic thought, ed. C. Schmidt, 126–145. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  24. Claxton, G. 2004. Learning is learnable (and we ought to teach it). In Ten years on, ed. Sir J. Cassell. National Commission for education report, UK.Google Scholar
  25. Crestani, I. 2001. Scientists talk to the military: Impact of communication preferences on client relationships. Dissertation, Charles Sturt University.Google Scholar
  26. Dale, V.H. 2002. Science and decision making. In Understanding and solving environmental problems in the 21st century. Toward a new integrated hard problem science, ed. R. Costanza and S.E. Jorgensen, 139–152. Amsterdam: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Cesare, S., M. Lycett, and R.J. Paul. 2003. Actor perception in business use case modeling. Communications of the Association of Information Systems 12: 223–241.Google Scholar
  28. De Greene, K.B. 1993. Policy challenges in a world of nonlinearity and structural change. A systems-based approach to policy making. Boston: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Department of Education. 2004. Employability skills for the future. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.Google Scholar
  30. Dole, J.A., and G.M. Sinatra. 1998. Reconceptualizing change in the cognitive construction of knowledge. Educational Psychologist 332(3): 109–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Doyle, J.K. 1997. The cognitive psychology of systems thinking. System Dynamics Review 133: 253–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fazey, I. 2010. Resilience and higher order thinking. Ecology and Society 153: 9. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss3/art9/.
  33. Fischer-Kowalski, M., and J. Rotmans. 2009. Conceptualizing, observing, and influencing social–ecological transitions. Ecology and Society 142: 3. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss2/art3/.
  34. Gallopin, G.C. 2002. Planning for resilience: Scenarios, surprises, and branch points. In Panarchy: Understanding transformations in human and natural systems, ed. L.H. Gunderson and C.S. Holling, 361–392. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  35. Garfield, M.J., N.J. Taylor, A.R. Dennis, and J.W. Satzinger. 2001. Modifying paradigms – Individual differences, creativity techniques, and exposure to ideas in group idea generation. Information Systems Research 123: 322–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gene Ontology Consortium. 2004. The gene ontology GO database and informatics resource. Nucleic Acids Research 32(Suppl 1): D258–D261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Giddens, A. 1990. The consequences of modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Giddens, A. 1999. Runaway world: How globalization is reshaping our lives. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Goldspink, C., and R. Kay. 2004. Bridging the micro–macro divide: a new basis for social science. Human Relations 575: 597–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Guarino, N. 1998. Formal ontology and information systems. Formal ontology in information systems. Paper presented at the FOIS’98, Trento.Google Scholar
  41. Gunderson, L.H., and C.S. Holling (eds.). 2002. Panarchy: Understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  42. Hofer, B.K., and P.R. Pintrich (eds.). 2002. Personal epistemology: The psychology of beliefs about knowledge and knowing. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  43. Holling, C.S. 1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4: 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Holling, C.S., L.H. Gunderson, and G.D. Peterson. 2002a. Sustainability and panarchies. In Panarchy: Understanding transformations in human and natural systems, ed. L.H. Gunderson and C.S. Holling, 63–102. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  45. Holling, C.S., L.H. Gunderson, and D. Ludwig. 2002b. In quest of a theory of adaptive change. In Panarchy: Understanding transformations in human and natural systems, ed. L.H. Gunderson and C.S. Holling, 3–22. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  46. International Risk Governance Council. 2009. Risk governance deficits. An analysis and illustration of the most common deficits in risk governance. Geneva.Google Scholar
  47. International Risk Governance Council. 2012. Risk governance deficits – Project overview. Retrieved from: http://www.irgc.org/-Risk-Governance-Deficits-.html.
  48. Jahoda, M., K.L.R. Pavitt, H.S.D. Cole, and C. Freeman (eds.). 1970. Models of doom: A critique of the limits to growth. New York: Universal Publishing.Google Scholar
  49. Jayaratna, N. 1994. Understanding and evaluating methodologies. NIMSAD: A systemic framework. London: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  50. Karlqvist, A. 1999. Going beyond disciplines: The meanings of interdisciplinarity. Policy Sciences 324: 379–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Killen, D., and G. Williams. 2009. Introduction to type and innovation. Mountain View: CPP.Google Scholar
  52. Matthies, M., H. Malchow, and J. Kriz (eds.). 2001. Integrative systems approaches to natural and social dynamics. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  53. McWilliam, E. 2007. Unlearning how to teach. Creativity or conformity? Building cultures of creativity in higher education. Paper presented at the conference organized by the University of Wales Institute, Cardiff in collaboration with the Higher Education Academy, Cardiff.Google Scholar
  54. McWilliam, E. 2009. The creative workforce: How to launch young people into high-flying futures. Sydney: UNSW Press.Google Scholar
  55. Meadows, D.H., and J.M. Robinson. 1985. The electronic oracle: Computer models and social decisions. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  56. Muneepeerakul, R., and M.R. Qubbaj. 2012. The effect of scaling and connection on the sustainability of resource-population system. Ecological Economics 77: 123–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Myers, I.B., M. McCaulley, N.L. Quenk, and A.L. Hammer. 1998. MBTI manual: A guide to the development and use of the Myers-Briggs type indicator. Camberwell: Consulting Psychologists Press Inc./Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  58. Paleo, U.F. (ed.). 2009. Building safer communities. Risk governance, spatial planning and responses to natural hazards. Amsterdam: Ios Press.Google Scholar
  59. Piaget, J. 1970. Genetic epistemology. New York: Columbia U.P.Google Scholar
  60. Prigogine, I., and I. Stengers. 1997. The end of certainty: Time, chaos, and the new laws of nature. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  61. Quinn, R., and J. Rohrbaugh. 1983. A spatial model of effectiveness criteria: Towards a competing values approach to organizational analysis. Management Science 29: 363–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rhoten, D., and A. Parker. 2004. Risk and rewards of an interdisciplinary research path. Science 306: 2046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Robinson, A. 2005. A polymath’s dilemma. Nature 438: 291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Scheffer, M., S. Carpenter, J.A. Foley, C. Folke, and B. Walker. 2001. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413: 591–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Schumpeter, J.A. 1950. Capitalism, socialism and democracy. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  66. Skaugen, K. 2011. High order bit. Paper presented at the Web 2.0 Summit 2011, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  67. Slaughter, R.A. (ed.). 1996. New thinking for a new millennium. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  68. Soffer, P., and I. Hadar. 2007. Applying ontology-based rules to conceptual modeling: A reflection on modeling decision making. European Journal of Information Systems 16: 599–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sterman, J.D. 2000. Business dynamics. Systems thinking and modeling for a complex world. Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  70. Stoffle, R.W., and R. Arnold. 2008. Facing the unimaginable: The limits of resilience and the risk society. Paper presented at the TG04 sociology of risk and uncertainty at the first international sociology association forum on sociology and public debat, Barcelona.Google Scholar
  71. Tansley, A.G. 1935. The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology 16: 284–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. van Rooyen, J. 2007. South African MBTI form M data supplement. Johannesburg: Jopie van Rooyen & Partners SA Pty Ltd.Google Scholar
  73. Wadsworth, Y. 2008. Is it safe to talk about systems again yet? Self organizing processes for complex living systems and the dynamics of human inquiry. Systemic Practice and Action Research 213: 153–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Waldrop, M.M. 1992. Complexity: The emerging science at the edge of order and chaos. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  75. Walker, B.H., J.M. Anderies, A.P. Kinzig, and P. Ryan. 2006. Exploring resilience in social-ecological systems through comparative studies and theory development: Introduction to the special issue. Ecology and Society 11(1): 12. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss1/art11.
  76. Wells, G., and G. Claxton (eds.). 2002. Introduction: Sociocultural perspectives on the future of education. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  77. Young, J., and M. Marzano. 2010. Embodied interdisciplinarity: What is the role of polymaths in environmental research? Environmental Conservation 37(4): 373–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Veterinary and Life SciencesMurdoch UniversityMurdochAustralia

Personalised recommendations