Lake Kinneret pp 133-157 | Cite as

The Seasonal Hydrodynamic Habitat

  • Jörg Imberger
  • Clelia Luisa Marti
Part of the Aquatic Ecology Series book series (AQEC, volume 6)


In this chapter, we present a detailed analysis of the annual thermal regime of Lake Kinneret based on high-resolution thermistor chain and meteorological data collected by the Centre for Water Research at the University of Western Australia during the period April 2007–April 2008. Five seasonal regimes of the yearly cycle are defined to illustrate the main physical aspects of the lake hydrodynamics and their effects on ecological processes.


Benthic boundary layer Internal wave Mixing Metalimnion Hypolimnion Surface layer Thermocline Turbulent kinetic energy 



The authors would like to acknowledge financial support for the Lake Kinneret Research programme from both the Australian Research Council (Projects A00105595, DP0346282 and DP0773823) and the Israeli Water Authority. We also thank Gregory Attwater, Roger Head and Carol Lam for assisting with the field data collection. Both authors are very grateful to Dr Tamar Zohary, and the rest of the KLL team, for their very warm support over the years and especially during the production of this manuscript.


  1. Antenucci JP, Imberger J, Saggio A (2000) Seasonal evolution of the basin-scale internal wave field in a large stratified lake. Limnol Oceanogr 45(7):1621–1638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antenucci JP, Imberger J (2001a) On internal waves near the high-frequency limit in an enclosed basin. J Geophys Res 106(C10):22465–22474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antenucci JP, Imberger J (2001b) Energetics of long internal gravity waves in large lakes. Limnol Oceanogr 46(7):1760–1773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Antenucci JP, Imberger J (2003) The seasonal evolution of wind/internal wave resonance in Lake Kinneret. Limnol Oceanogr 48(5):2055–2061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berman T, Yacobi YZ, Pollingher U (1988) Lake Kinneret phytoplankton: stability and variability during twenty years (1970–1989). Aquat Sci 54:104–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berman T, Stone L, Yacobi YZ, Kaplan B, Schlichter M, Nishri A, Pollingher U (1995) Primary Production and Phytoplankton in Lake Kinneret: A Long-Term Record (1972–1993) Limnol Oceanogr 40(6):1064–1076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boegman L, Imberger J, Ivey GN, Antenucci JP (2003) High-frequency internal waves in large stratified lakes. Limnol Oceanogr 48(2):895–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boegman L, Ivey GN, Imberger, J (2005) The degeneration of internal waves in lakes with sloping topography. Limnol Oceanogr 50(5):1620–1637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bruce LC, Hamilton DP, Imberger J, Gal G, Gophen M, Zohary T, Hambright D (2006) A numerical simulation of the role of zooplankton in C, N and P cycling in Lake Kinneret, Israel. Ecol Model 193 (3–4):412–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dubowski Y, Erez J, Stiller M (2003) Isotopic Paleolimnology of Lake Kinneret. Limnol Oceanogr 48(1):68–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eckert W, Imberger J, Saggio A (2002) Biogeochemical response to physical forcing in the water column of a warm monomictic lake. Biogeochemistry 61(3):291–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gill AE (1982) Atmosphere–ocean dynamics. Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  13. Goldstein S (1929) Tidal motion in rotating elliptic basins of constant depth. Mon Not R Astron Soc (Geophys. Suppl.) 2:213–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gomez-Giraldo EA, Imberger J, Antenucci JP (2006) Spatial structure of the dominant basin-scale internal waves in Lake Kinneret. Limnol Oceanogr 51(1):229–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gomez-Giraldo EA, Imberger J, Antenucci JP, Yeates P (2008) Wind-shear generated high frequency internal waves as precursors to mixing in a stratified lake. Limnol Oceanogr 53(1):354–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hazan N, Stein M, Agnon A, Marco S, Nadel D, Negendank JFW, Schwab MJ, Neev D (2005) The late quaternary limnological history of Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel. Quaternary Res 63:60–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hillmer I, Van Reen P, Imberger J, Zohary T (2008) Phytoplankton patchiness and their role in the modelled productivity of a large, seasonally stratified lake. Ecol Model 218:49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Horn DA, Imberger J, Ivey GN (2001) The degeneration of large-scale interfacial gravity waves in lakes. J Fluid Mech 434:181–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Imberger J (1985a) Thermal characteristics of standing waters: an illustration of dynamic processes. Hydrobiologia 125:7–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Imberger J (1985b) The diurnal mixed layer Limnol Oceanogr 30:737–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Imberger J (1998) Flux path in a stratified lake: A review. In: Imberger J (ed) Physical processes in Lakes and Oceans. Vol 54. American Geophysical UnionGoogle Scholar
  22. Imberger J (2013) Environmental Fluid Dynamics. Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  23. Imberger J, Ivey GN (1993) Boundary mixing in stratified reservoirs. J Fluid Mech 248:477–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Imberger J, Patterson JC (1990) Physical Limnology. In: Wu T (ed) Advances in Applied Mechanics. Academic Press, The publisher location is BostonGoogle Scholar
  25. Krauss EB, Turner JS (1967) A one dimensional model of the seasonal thermocline, II The General Theory and its Consequences. Tellus 19:98–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Laval BE, Imberger J, Hodges BR, Stocker R (2003) Modeling circulation in lakes: Spatial and temporal variations. Limnol Oceanogr 48(3):983–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lemckert CJ, Antenucci JP, Saggio A, Imberger J (2004) Physical properties of turbulent benthic boundary layers generated by internal waves. J Hydraul Eng-ASCE 130(1):58–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Marti CL, Imberger J (2006) Dynamics of the benthic boundary layer in a strongly forced stratified lake. Hydrobiologia 568(1):217–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Marti CL, Imberger J (2008) Exchange between littoral and pelagic waters in a stratified lake due to wind induced motions: Lake Kinneret, Israel. Hydrobiologia 603(1):25–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Meier JA, Jewell JS, Brennen CE, Imberger J (2011) Bubbles emerging from a submerged granular bed. J Fluid Mech 666:189–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Monismith SG (1985) Wind-forced motions in stratified lakes and their effect on mixed-layer shear. Limnol Oceanogr 30:771–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ng S, Antenucci JP, Hipsey MR, Tibor G, Zohary T (2011) Physical controls on the spatial evolution of a dinoflagellate bloom in a large lake. Limnol Oceanogr 56(6): 2265–2281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nishri A, Imberger J, Eckert W, Ostrovosky I, Geifman J (2000) The physical regime and the respective biogeochemical processes in lower water mass of Lake Kinneret. Limnol Oceanogr 45(4):972–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ostrovsky I (2003) Methane bubbles in Lake Kinneret: quantification and temporal and spatial heterogeneity. Limnol Oceanogr 48(3):1030–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Parparov A, Gal G (2012) Assessment and implementation of a methodological framework for sustainable management: Lake Kinneret as a case study. J Environ Manage 101:111–117. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.01.030PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rimmer A, Aota Y, Kumagai M, Eckert W (2005) Chemical stratification in thermally stratified lakes: A chloride mass balance model. Limnol Oceanogr 50:147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rimmer A, Gal G, Opher T, Lechinsky Y, Yacobi YZ (2011) Mechanisms of long-term variations of the thermal structure in a warm lake. Limnol Oceanogr 56:974–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Roelke DL, Zohary T, Hambright KD, Montoya JV (2007) Alternative states in the phytoplankton of Lake Kinneret, Israel (Sea of Galilee). Freshwater Biol 52(3):399–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Saggio A, Imberger J (2001) Mixing and turbulent fluxes in the metalimnion of a stratified lake. Limnol Oceanogr 46(2):392–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Serruya C (ed) (1978) Lake Kinneret Monographiae Biologicae. 32: Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  41. Serruya S (1975) Wind, water temperature and motions in Lake Kinneret: General pattern. Verh Int Ver Limnol 19:73–87Google Scholar
  42. Sherman FS, Imberger J, Corcos GM (1978) Turbulence and mixing in stably stratified waters. Ann Rev Fluid Mech 10:267–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shilo E, Ashkenazy Y, Rimmer A, Assouline S, Katsafados P, Mahrer Y (2007) Effect of wind variability on topographic waves: Lake Kinneret case. J Geophys Res 112 (C12024). doi:10.1029/2007JC004336Google Scholar
  44. Shimizu K, Imberger J (2008) Energetics and damping of basin-scale internal waves in a strongly stratified lake. Limnol Oceanogr 53(4):1574–1588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shimizu K, Imberger J (2009) Damping mechanisms of internal waves in a continuously stratified rotating basins. J Fluid Mech 637:137–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shimizu K, Imberger J (2010) Evolution of damped basin-scale internal waves in a shallow stratified lake. Limnol Oceanogr 55(3):1449–1462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shintani T, de la Fuente A, Imberger J, Nino Y (2010) Generalizations of the Wedderburn Number: parameterizing upwelling in stratified lakes. Limnol Oceanogr 55(3):1377–1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Spigel RH, Imberger J, Rayner KN (1986) Modelling the diurnal mixed layer. Limnol Oceanogr 31:533–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Stocker R, Imberger J (2003a) Energy, partitioning and horizontal dispersion in a stratified rotating lake. J Phys Oceanogr 33(3):512–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stocker R, Imberger J (2003b) Horizontal transport and dispersion in the surface layer of a medium size lake. Limnol Oceanogr 48(3):971–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Thompson RORY, Imberger J (1980) Response of a numerical model of a stratified lake to wind stress. In: Carstens T, McClimans T (eds) Second International Symposium on Stratified Flows, IAHR, Trondheim pp. 562–570Google Scholar
  52. Thomson SIR W (Lord Kelvin) (1879) On gravitational oscillations of rotating water. Proc R Soc Edinb 10:92–100Google Scholar
  53. Verburg P, Hecky RE (2009) The physics of the warming of Lake Tanganyika by climate change. Limnol. Oceanogr 54(6, part 2):2418–2430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yacobi YZ, Ostrovsky I (2008) Downward flux of organic matter and pigments in Lake Kinneret (Israel): relationships between phytoplankton and the material collected in sediment traps. J Plankton Res 30(10):1189–1202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yeates PS, Imberger J (2003) Pseudo two-dimensional simulations of internal and boundary fluxes in stratified lakes and reservoirs. International Journal of River Basin Management 1(4):297–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yeates PS, Imberger J, Gomez-Giraldo A (2013) Observed relationships between microstructure patches and the gradient Richardson number in a thermally stratified lake. Environ Fluid Mech 13:205–226. doi:10.1007/s10652–013-9269–4Google Scholar
  57. Zohary T, Nishri A, Sukenik A (2012) Present–absent: a chronicle of the dinoflagellate Peridinium gatunense from Lake Kinneret. Hydrobiologia 698:161–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Water ResearchThe University of Western Australia MO23CrawleyAustralia

Personalised recommendations