Emerging Disease and the Evolution of Virulence: The Case of the 1918–1919 Influenza Pandemic

Chapter
Part of the History, Philosophy and Theory of the Life Sciences book series (HPTL, volume 7)

Abstract

“Why do parasites harm their host?” is a recurrent question in evolutionary biology and ecology, and has several implications for the biomedical sciences, particularly public health and epidemiology. Contrasting the meaning(s) of the concept of “virulence” in molecular pathology and evolutionary ecology, we review different explanations proposed as to why, and under what conditions, parasites cause harm to their host: whereas the former uses molecular techniques and concepts to explain changes and the nature of virulence seen as a categorical trait, the latter conceptualizes virulence as a phenotypic quantitative trait (usually related to a reduction in the host’s fitness). After describing the biology of emerging influenza viruses we illustrate how the ecological and the molecular approaches provide distinct (but incomplete) explanations of the 1918–19 influenza pandemic. We suggest that an evolutionary approach is necessary to understand the dynamics of disease transmission but that a broader understanding of virulence will ultimately benefit from articulating and integrating the ecological dynamics with cellular mechanisms of virulence. Both ecological and functional perspectives on host-pathogens’ interactions are required to answer the opening question but also to devise appropriate health-care measures in order to prevent (and predict?) future influenza pandemics and other emerging threats. Finally, the difficult co-existence of distinct explanatory frameworks reflects the fact that scientists can work on a same problem using various methodologies but it also highlights the enduring tension between two scientific styles of practice in biomedicine.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Earlier versions of this article were presented by Pierre-Olivier Méthot at Bristol University as part of the Seminar Series in the Philosophy of Medicine in March 2011 and during the Consortium in the History and Philosophy of Biology at the IHPST, in Paris, in June 2011. Financial support from the SSHRC is gratefully acknowledged (no.752-2007-1257).

Samuel Alizon is funded by an ATIP-avenir grant from CNRS and INSERM.

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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculté de philosophie, Pavillon Félix-Antoine SavardUniversité LavalG1V 0A6Canada
  2. 2.Centre interuniversitaire de recherche sur la science et la technologieUniversité du Québec à MontréalH3C 3P8Canada
  3. 3.Laboratoire MIVEGEC (UMR CNRS 5290, IRD 224, UM1, UM2)MontpellierFrance

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