Advertisement

Eddies in the Red Sea as seen by Satellite SAR Imagery

  • Svetlana S. KarimovaEmail author
  • Martin Gade
Chapter

Abstract

We present the results of our observations of mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddies in the Red Sea based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. The dataset used includes about 500 Envisat Advanced SAR (ASAR) images obtained in 2006–2011 over the Red Sea. We found more than 1,000 sub-mesoscale eddies, which manifest in the SAR imagery both due to surfactant films (“black” eddies) and wave/current interactions (“white” eddies), depending on the local wind speed. Sub-mesoscale eddies in the Red Sea seem to be more innumerous than in other inner seas, presumably due to a relatively deep upper mixed layer in this basin. Moreover, more than 50 meso- and basin-scale eddies were found, whose rotation was mostly anti-cyclonic and whose diameters ranged up to approximately 200 km. Most of the basin-scale eddies were found between 21 and 24°N, which is in agreement with earlier observations and with numerical modeling.

Keywords

Wind Speed Synthetic Aperture Radar Synthetic Aperture Radar Image Cyclonic Eddy Shear Line 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported within the framework of the Federal Target Program “Scientific and scientific-pedagogical personnel of innovative Russia” in 2009–2013. The data used for the present study were kindly provided by ESA under project ID 14120 (SESAMeSEA).

References

  1. Akitomo K (2010) Baroclinic instability and submesoscale eddy formation in weakly stratified oceans under cooling. J Geophys Res 115:C11027. doi:10.1029/2010JC006125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alpers W, Hühnerfuss H (1989) The damping of ocean waves by surface films: a new look at an old problem. J Geophys Res 94(5):6251–6265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alpers W, Brandt P, Lazar A, Dagorne D, Sow B, Faye S, Hansen M, Rubino A, Poulain PM, Brehmer P (2013) A small-scale oceanic eddy off the coast of West Africa studied by multi-sensor satellite and surface drifter data. Remote Sens Environ 129:132–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barale V (2007) Marine and coastal features of the Red Sea. European Commission, EUR 23091 EN, p 56Google Scholar
  5. Barale V, Gade M (2014) Basic ecosystem dynamics in the Red Sea as seen by sundry remote sensing techniques. In: Barale V, Gade M (eds) Remote sensing of the african seas. Springer, Heidelberg, this issueGoogle Scholar
  6. Boubnov BM, Golitsyn GS (1995) Convection in rotating fluids. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dokken ST, Wahl T (1996) Observations of spiral eddies along the Norwegian Coast in ERS SAR images. FFI Rapport 96/01463Google Scholar
  8. Eldevik T, Dysthe K (2002) Spiral eddies. J Phys Oceanogr 32:851–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Espedal HA, Johannessen OM, Johannessen JA, Dano E, Lyzenga D, Knulst JC (1998) COASTWATCH ’95: A tandem ERS-1/2 SAR detection experiment of natural film on the ocean surface. J Geophys Res 103:24969–24982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fu LL, Holt B (1982) Seasat views the oceans and sea ice with synthetic-aperture-radar. JPL Publication, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  11. Gade M, Byfield V, Ermakov SA, Lavrova OYu, Mitnik LM (2013) Slicks as indicators for marine processes. Oceanography 26(2):138–149Google Scholar
  12. Karimova S (2012) Spiral eddies in the Baltic, Black and Caspian seas as seen by satellite radar data. Adv Space Res 50(8):1107–1124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kleppin H (2012) Analysing spiral eddies as an example of baroclinic Mixed Layer Instabilities. MSc thesis, Dept. Geosci., University of Hamburg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  14. Laughton AS (1970) A new bathymetric chart of the Red Sea. Phil Trans Roy SocLondA 267:21–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Manasrah R, Badran M, Lass HU, Fennel WG (2004) Circulation and winter deep-water formation in the northern Red Sea. Oceanologia 46:5–23Google Scholar
  16. Quadfasel D, Baudner H (1993) Gyre-scale circulation cells in the Red Sea. Oceanologica Acta 16: 221–229Google Scholar
  17. Sofianos SS, Johns WE (2003) An Oceanic General Circulation Model (OGCM) investigation of the Red Sea circulation: 2. Three-dimensional circulation in the Red Sea. J Geophys Res 108(3):3066. doi:10.1029/2001JC001185Google Scholar
  18. Sofianos SS, Johns WE (2007) Observations of the summer Red Sea circulation. J Geophys Res 112:C06025. doi:10.1029/2006JC003886Google Scholar
  19. Tadikamalla PR (1980) A look at the burr and related distributions. Int Stat Rev 48:337–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tragou E, Garret C (1997) The thermohaline circulation of the Red Sea. Deep-Sea Res I 44(8):1355–1376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ufermann S, Romeiser R (1999) Numerical study on signatures of atmospheric convective cells in radar images of the ocean. J Geophys Res 104. doi:10.1029/1999JC900224Google Scholar
  22. Voropayev SI, Afanasyev YaD (1992) Two-dimensional vortex dipoles interactions in a stratified fluid. J Fluid Mech 236:665–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Woelk S, Quadfasel D (1996) Renewal of deep water in the Red Sea during 1982–1987. J Geophys Res 101(8):18155–18166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhan P (2013) Sea surface height variability and Eddy statistical properties in the Red Sea. MSc thesis, King Abdullah Univ of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia p 66Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Space Research InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Institut für KüstenforschungHelmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Zentrum für Material- und Küstenforschung GmbHGeesthachtGermany
  3. 3.Institut für MeereskundeUniversität HamburgHamburgGermany

Personalised recommendations