Input–Output and Hybrid LCA

Chapter
Part of the LCA Compendium – The Complete World of Life Cycle Assessment book series (LCAC)

Abstract

Known as hybrid LCA, integrated use of economic input–output (IO) analysis and process-based LCA (PLCA) has become a major tool of LCA inventory analysis. Proceeding from the basics of IO, this chapter discusses the issues of monetary versus physical data, multiregional extension, end-of-life phase with waste management and recycling, cost and price (with implications for life cycle costing), technology choices, and substitution. Besides the strengths of hybrid LCA, several often-cited “weaknesses” are also addressed.

Keywords

CES functions CGE Database Computable general equilibrium (CGE) LCC Life cycle assessment (LCA) Life cycle costing (LCC) Linear programming (LP) LP Monetary and physical tables MRIO Multiregional input–output (MRIO) Productive conditions Recycling Supply and use tables Waste input–output 

Acronyms

CGE

Computable general equilibrium

EEIO

Environmentally extended IO

EoL

End of life

EPR

Extended producer responsibility

EXIOPOL

Externality data and input–output tools for policy analysis

GDP

Gross domestic product

GE

General equilibrium model

ICP

International comparison program

IOT

IO table

MIOT

Monetary IO table

MRIO

Multiregional input–output table

PIOT

Physical IOT

PLCA

Process-based LCA

PPP

Purchasing power parity

ROW

Rest of the world

WIO-MFA

Waste input–output material flow analysis

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Tomy Wiedmann, Manfred Lenzen, Edgar Hertwich, Sangwon Suh, and Klaus Hubacek for providing us with the latest information about their research and Yosuke Shigetomi for the preparation of the extensive list of references for case studies. We are also grateful to Nigel Harle of Gronsveld, the Netherlands, for his careful revision of our English.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Political Science and EconomicsWaseda UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.National Institute for Environmental StudiesCenter for Material Cycles and Waste Management ResearchIbarakiJapan

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