Advertisement

Factors That May Increase Vulnerability to Cancer and Longevity in Modern Human Populations

  • Svetlana V. UkraintsevaEmail author
  • Konstantin G. Arbeev
  • Igor Akushevich
  • Alexander M. Kulminski
  • Eric Stallard
  • Anatoliy I. Yashin
Chapter
Part of the The Springer Series on Demographic Methods and Population Analysis book series (PSDE, volume 40)

Abstract

Cancer incidence rates for all disease sites combined and life expectancy have increased over time in many countries around the world. These increases were concurrent with economic progress and the spread of the Western lifestyle. Overall cancer risk and longevity are currently higher in more than in less developed regions of the world. What caused this global increase in cancer risk, beyond known carcinogenic exposures? Could life in affluent societies make people more susceptible to cancer? And could the increases in cancer risk and longevity be favored by the same factors linked to economic prosperity and the related lifestyle? In this chapter, we address these important questions. We discuss the global epidemiological evidence and results of human and animal studies to show that the higher overall cancer risk in the more developed world might be a result of a higher proportion of individuals more susceptible to cancer, rather than merely the result of a higher carcinogenic burden in respective populations. This proportion could increase over time under the influence of several factors linked to economic development and the Western lifestyle, including improved medical and living conditions that allow for survival of people with less efficient immune systems and some novel exposures that are not carcinogenic themselves but may increase one’s vulnerability to established carcinogens. Some factors associated with the Western lifestyle (e.g., food enriched with growth factors and delayed childbirth) may favor both longevity and vulnerability to cancer. This suggests that trade-offs between cancer and aging may potentially contribute to concurrent increases in longevity and cancer risks in modern human populations.

Keywords

Cancer Risk Stomach Cancer Economic Prosperity Economic Progress Cancer Incidence Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgement

Research reported in this chapter was partly supported by the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health under Award Numbers R01AG046860 and P01AG043352. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

References

  1. Ahn, J., Sinha, R., Pei, Z., Dominianni, C., Wu, J., Shi, J., Goedert, J. J., Hayes, R. B., & Yang, L. (2013). Human gut microbiome and risk for colorectal cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 105(24), 1907–1911. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djt300. PubMed PMID: 24316595, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3866154, Epub 2013 Dec 6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akushevich, I., Kravchenko, J., Ukraintseva, S., Arbeev, K., & Yashin, A. I. (2012). Age patterns of incidence of geriatric disease in the U.S. elderly population: Medicare-based analysis. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 60(2), 323–327. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03786.x. PubMed PMID: 22283485, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3288526, Epub 2012 Jan 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ananthakrishnan, A. N., Du, M., Berndt, S. I., Brenner, H., Caan, B. J., Casey, G., Chang-Claude, J., Duggan, D., Fuchs, C. S., Gallinger, S., Giovannucci, E. L., Harrison, T. A., Hayes, R. B., Hoffmeister, M., Hopper, J. L., Hou, L., Hsu, L., Jenkins, M. A., Kraft, P., Ma, J., Nan, H., Newcomb, P. A., Ogino, S., Potter, J. D., Seminara, D., Slattery, M. L., Thornquist, M., White, E., Wu, K., Peters, U., & Chan, A. T. (2015). Red meat intake, NAT2, and risk of colorectal cancer: A pooled analysis of 11 studies. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 24(1), 198–205. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965. EPI-14-0897. Epub 2014 Oct 23. PubMed PMID: 25342387; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4294960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anisimov, V. N., & Gvardina, O. E. (1995). N-nitrosomethylurea-induced carcinogenesis in the progeny of male rats of different ages. Mutation Research, 316(3), 139–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnaldez, F. I., & Helman, L. J. (2012). Targeting the insulin growth factor receptor 1. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, 26(3), 527–542. doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2012.01.004. PubMed PMID: 22520978, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3334849, vii-viii. Epub 2012 Feb 28. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Astrakianakis, G., Seixas, N. S., Ray, R., Camp, J. E., Gao, D. L., Feng, Z., Li, W., Wernli, K. J., Fitzgibbons, E. D., Thomas, D. B., & Checkoway, H. (2007). Lung cancer risk among female textile workers exposed to endotoxin. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 99(5), 357–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baghurst, P., Robson, S., Antoniou, G., Scheil, W., & Bryce, R. (2014). The association between increasing maternal age at first birth and decreased rates of spontaneous vaginal birth in South Australia from 1991 to 2009. The Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 54(3), 237–243. doi: 10.1111/ajo.12182. Epub 2014 Feb 8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bartke, A., Chandrashekar, V., Dominici, F., Turyn, D., Kinney, B., Steger, R., & Kopchick, J. J. (2003). Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and aging: Controversies and new insights. Biogerontology, 4(1), 1–8. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Batty, G. D., Shipley, M. J., Gunnell, D., Huxley, R., Kivimaki, M., Woodward, M., Lee, C. M., & Smith, G. D. (2009). Height, wealth, and health: An overview with new data from three longitudinal studies. Economics and Human Biology, 7(2), 137–152. doi: 10.1016/j.ehb.2009.06.004. Epub 2009 Jun 28. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bruchim, I., Attias, Z., & Werner, H. (2009). Targeting the IGF1 axis in cancer proliferation. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets, 13(10), 1179–1192. doi: 10.1517/14728220903201702. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bujnowski, D., Xun, P., Daviglus, M. L., Van Horn, L., He, K., & Stamler, J. (2011). Longitudinal association between animal and vegetable protein intake and obesity among men in the United States: The Chicago Western Electric Study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 111(8), 1150–1155.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2011.05.002. PubMed PMID: 21802560; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3158996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Canudas-Romo, V. (2010). Three measures of longevity: Time trends and record values. Demography, 47(2), 299–312. PubMed PMID: 20608098, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3000019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carr, P. R., Walter, V., Brenner, H., & Hoffmeister, M. (2015). Meat subtypes and their association with colorectal cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Cancer. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29423 [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  14. Cedergreen, N. (2014). Quantifying synergy: A systematic review of mixture toxicity studies within environmental toxicology. PLoS ONE, 9(5), e96580. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096580.eCollection2014. PubMed PMID: 24794244, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4008607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. CI5 (1966–2013). Cancer incidence in five continents (Vol. I–X) (1966–2013). IARC Scientific Publications. Lyon: IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). http://ci5.iarc.fr/CI5plus/Default.aspx, http://ci5.iarc.fr/CI5I-X/Pages/references.aspx, Last assessed on 28 Sept 2014 (The reference time period for Volumes I–X: 1965–2007).
  16. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. (2012). Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: Individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies. Lancet Oncology, 13(11), 1141–1151. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70425-4. PubMed PMID: 23084519, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3488186, Epub 2012 Oct 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Conti, E., Musumeci, M. B., De Giusti, M., Dito, E., Mastromarino, V., Autore, C., & Volpe, M. (2011). IGF-1 and atherothrombosis: Relevance to pathophysiology and therapy. Clinical Science, 120, 377–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coussens, L. M., & Werb, Z. (2002). Inflammation and cancer. Nature, 420(6917), 860–867. Review. PubMed PMID: 12490959; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2803035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coussens, L. M., Zitvogel, L., & Palucka, A. K. (2013). Neutralizing tumor-promoting chronic inflammation: A magic bullet? Science, 339(6117), 286–291. doi: 10.1126/science.1232227. Review. Erratum in: Science. 2013 Mar 29;339(6127):1522. PubMed PMID: 23329041; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3591506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davis, E., Jacoby, P., de Klerk, N. H., Cole, C., & Milne, E. (2011). Western Australian children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are taller at diagnosis than unaffected children of the same age and sex. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 56(5), 767–770. doi: 10.1002/pbc.22832. Epub 2011 Jan 18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. De Coster, S., & van Larebeke, N. (2012). Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: Associated disorders and mechanisms of action. Journal of Environment Public Health, 2012, 713696. PubMed PMID: 22991565, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3443608, Epub 2012 Sep 6. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. De Kleijn, M. J., van der Schouw, Y. T., Verbeek, A. L., Peeters, P. H., Banga, J. D., & van der Graaf, Y. (2002). Endogenous estrogen exposure and cardiovascular mortality risk in postmenopausal women. American Journal of Epidemiology, 155(4), 339–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Diggs, D. L., Myers, J. N., Banks, L. D., Niaz, M. S., Hood, D. B., Roberts, L. J., 2nd, & Ramesh, A. (2013). Influence of dietary fat type on benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] biotransformation in a B(a)P-induced mouse model of colon cancer. Journal of Nutrition and Biochemistry, 24(12), 2051–2063. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.07.006. PubMed PMID: 24231098, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3904801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dong, X., Chang, G., Ji, X. F., Tao, D. B., & Wang, Y. X. (2014). The relationship between serum insulin-like growth factor I levels and ischemic stroke risk. PLoS ONE, 9(4), e94845. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094845.eCollection2014. PubMed PMID: 24728374, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3984250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dratva, J., Gómez Real, F., Schindler, C., Ackermann-Liebrich, U., Gerbase, M. W., Probst-Hensch, N. M., Svanes, C., Omenaas, E. R., Neukirch, F., Wjst, M., Morabia, A., Jarvis, D., Leynaert, B., & Zemp, E. (2009). Is age at menopause increasing across Europe? Results on age at menopause and determinants from two population-based studies. Menopause, 16(2), 385–394. doi: 10.1097/gme.0b013e31818aefef.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Duron, E., Funalot, B., Brunel, N., Coste, J., Quinquis, L., Viollet, C., Belmin, J., Jouanny, P., Pasquier, F., Treluyer, J. M., Epelbaum, J., le Bouc, Y., & Hanon, O. (2012). Insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal for Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 97(12), 4673–4681. doi: 10.1210/jc.2012-2063. Epub 2012 Sep 26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Edwards, B. K., Noone, A.-M., Mariotto, A. B., Simard, E. P., Boscoe, F. P., Henley, S. J., Jemal, A., Cho, H., Anderson, R. N., Kohler, B. A., Eheman, C. R., & Ward, E. M. (2014). Annual Report to the Nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2010, featuring prevalence of comorbidity and impact on survival among persons with lung, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer. Cancer, 120, 1290–1314. doi: 10.1002/cncr.28509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ewertz, M., Duffy, S. W., Adami, H. O., Kvåle, G., Lund, E., Meirik, O., Mellemgaard, A., Soini, I., & Tulinius, H. (1990). Age at first birth, parity and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of 8 studies from the Nordic countries. International Journal of Cancer, 46(4), 597–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Falk, P. G., Hooper, L. V., Midtvedt, T., & Gordon, J. I. (1998). Creating and maintaining the gastrointestinal ecosystem: What we know and need to know from gnotobiology. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 62(4), 1157–1170. PubMed PMID: 9841668, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC98942, Review.Google Scholar
  30. Ferlay, J., Soerjomataram, I., Ervik, M., Dikshit, R., Eser, S., Mathers, C., Rebelo, M., Parkin, D. M., Forman, D., & Bray, F. (2013). GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon: IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr. Accessed on 12/25/2014.Google Scholar
  31. Finch, C. E., Beltrán-Sánchez, H., & Crimmins, E. M. (2014). Uneven futures of human lifespans: Reckonings from gompertz mortality rates, climate change, and air pollution. Gerontology, 60(2), 183–188. doi: 10.1159/000357672. PubMed PMID: 24401556, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4023560, Epub 2013 Dec 24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Franceschi, S., La Vecchia, C., Booth, M., Tzonou, A., Negri, E., Parazzini, F., Trichopoulos, D., & Beral, V. (1991). Pooled analysis of 3 European case-control studies of ovarian cancer: II. Age at menarche and at menopause. International Journal of Cancer, 49(1), 57–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Francescone, R., Hou, V., & Grivennikov, S. I. (2014). Microbiome, inflammation, and cancer. Cancer Journal, 20(3), 181–189. doi: 10.1097/PPO.0000000000000048. PubMed PMID: 24855005, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4112188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gao, H., Yang, B. J., Li, N., Feng, L. M., Shi, X. Y., Zhao, W. H., & Liu, S. J. (2015). Bisphenol a and hormone-associated cancers: Current progress and perspectives. Medicine (Baltimore), 94(1), e211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Garrido-Latorre, F., Lazcano-Ponce, E. C., López-Carrillo, L., & Hernández-Avila, M. (1996). Age of natural menopause among women in Mexico City. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 53(2), 159–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Giovannucci, E., Rimm, E. B., Liu, Y., & Willett, W. C. (2004). Height, predictors of C-peptide and cancer risk in men. International Journal of Epidemiology, 33(1), 217–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hajdarbegovic, E., Verkouteren, J., & Balak, D. (2012). Non-melanoma skin cancer: The hygiene hypothesis. Medical Hypotheses, 79(6), 872–874. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2012.09.012. Epub 2012 Oct 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hanahan, D., & Weinberg, R. A. (2000). The hallmarks of cancer. Cell, 100(1), 57–70. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hanahan, D., & Weinberg, R. A. (2011). Hallmarks of cancer: The next generation. Cell, 144(5), 646–674. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hardy, R., & Kuh, D. (2005). Social and environmental conditions across the life course and age at menopause in a British birth cohort study. BJOG, 112(3), 346–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Health U.S. (2013). National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2013: With special feature on prescription drugs. Hyattsville, MD. 2014.Google Scholar
  42. Helle, S., Lummaa, V., & Jokela, J. (2005). Are reproductive and somatic senescence coupled in humans? Late, but not early, reproduction correlated with longevity in historical Sami women. Proceedings of the Biological Sciences, 272(1558), 29–37. PubMed PMID: 15875567, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1634941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hemminki, K., Kyyrönen, P., & Vaittinen, P. (1999). Parental age as a risk factor of childhood leukemia and brain cancer in offspring. Epidemiology, 10(3), 271–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hodgson, M. E., Newman, B., & Millikan, R. C. (2004). Birthweight, parental age, birth order and breast cancer risk in African-American and white women: A population-based case-control study. Breast Cancer Research, 6(6), R656–R667. PubMed PMID: 15535848, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1064078, Epub 2004 Sep 22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Howlader, N., Noone, A. M., Krapcho, M., Garshell, J., Miller, D., Altekruse, S. F., Kosary, C. L., Yu, M., Ruhl, J., Tatalovich, Z., Mariotto, A., Lewis, D. R., Chen, H. S., Feuer, E. J., & Cronin, K. A. (Eds.). (2014). SEER cancer statistics review, 1975–2011, Bethesda: National Cancer Institute. http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2011/, based on November 2013 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2014. Accessed 15 Sept 2014.
  46. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Volumes 1–108, and Supplements 1–7, published during 1972–2014. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon: IARC Press. The link to the monographs on the IARC/WHO web site: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/PDFs/index.php. Accessed 5 Jan 2015.
  47. Ikeno, Y., Hubbard, G. B., Lee, S., Cortez, L. A., Lew, C. M., Webb, C. R., Berryman, D. E., List, E. O., Kopchick, J. J., & Bartke, A. (2009). Reduced incidence and delayed occurrence of fatal neoplastic diseases in growth hormone receptor/binding protein knockout mice. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 64(5), 522–529. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glp017. PubMed PMID: 19228785, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2667132, Epub 2009 Feb 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jansen, S. C., Temme, E. H., & Schouten, E. G. (2002). Lifetime estrogen exposure versus age at menopause as mortality predictor. Maturitas, 43(2), 105–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jemal, A., Thun, M. J., Ries, L. A., Howe, H. L., Weir, H. K., Center, M. M., Ward, E., Wu, X. C., Eheman, C., Anderson, R., Ajani, U. A., Kohler, B., & Edwards, B. K. (2008). Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2005, featuring trends in lung cancer, tobacco use, and tobacco control. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 100(23), 1672–1694. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djn389. PubMed PMID: 19033571, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2639291, Epub 2008 Nov 25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jemal, A., Bray, F., Center, M. M., Ferlay, J., Ward, E., & Forman, D. (2011). Global cancer statistics. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 61(2), 69–90. doi: 10.3322/caac.20107. Epub 2011 Feb 4. Erratum in: CA Cancer J Clin. 2011 Mar-Apr;61(2):134.Google Scholar
  51. Jemal, A., Simard, E. P., Dorell, C., Noone, A. M., Markowitz, L. E., Kohler, B., Eheman, C., Saraiya, M., Bandi, P., Saslow, D., Cronin, K. A., Watson, M., Schiffman, M., Henley, S. J., Schymura, M. J., Anderson, R. N., Yankey, D., & Edwards, B. K. (2013). Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975–2009, featuring the burden and trends in human papillomavirus(HPV)-associated cancers and HPV vaccination coverage levels. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 105(3), 175–201. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djs491. Epub 2013 Jan 7. PubMed PMID: 23297039; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3565628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Johnsen, S. P., Hundborg, H. H., Sørensen, H. T., Orskov, H., Tjønneland, A., Overvad, K., & Jørgensen, J. O. (2005). Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, -II, and IGF binding protein-3 and risk of ischemic stroke. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90(11), 5937–5941. Epub 2005 Aug 30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Josephs, D. H., Spicer, J. F., Corrigan, C. J., Gould, H. J., & Karagiannis, S. N. (2013). Epidemiological associations of allergy. IgE and cancer. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 43(10), 1110–1123. doi: 10.1111/cea.12178. Review.Google Scholar
  54. Kabat, G. C., Anderson, M. L., Heo, M., Hosgood, H. D., 3rd, Kamensky, V., Bea, J. W., Hou, L., Lane, D. S., Wactawski-Wende, J., Manson, J. E., & Rohan, T. E. (2013). Adult stature and risk of cancer at different anatomic sites in a cohort of postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 22(8), 1353–1363. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0305. Epub 2013 Jul 25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kagawa, Y. (1978). Impact of Westernization on the nutrition of Japanese: Changes in physique, cancer, longevity and centenarians. Preventive Medicine, 7(2), 205–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kaklamani, V. G., Linos, A., Kaklamani, E., Markaki, I., Koumantaki, Y., & Mantzoros, C. S. (1999). Dietary fat and carbohydrates are independently associated with circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 concentrations in healthy adults. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 17(10), 3291–3298.Google Scholar
  57. Key, T. J., Appleby, P. N., Reeves, G. K., Roddam, A. W., & Endogenous Hormones Breast Cancer Collaborative Group. (2010). Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), and breast cancer risk: Pooled individual data analysis of 17 prospective studies. Lancet Oncology, 11(6), 530–542. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(10)70095-4. PubMed PMID: 20472501, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3113287, Epub 2010 May 14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Krämer, U., Heinrich, J., Wjst, M., & Wichmann, H. E. (1999). Age of entry to day nursery and allergy in later childhood. Lancet, 353(9151), 450–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kriplani, A., & Banerjee, K. (2005). An overview of age of onset of menopause in northern India. Maturitas, 52(3-4), 199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lange, J. H., Rylander, R., Fedeli, U., & Mastrangelo, G. (2003). Extension of the “hygiene hypothesis” to the association of occupational endotoxin exposure with lower lung cancer risk. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 112(1), 219–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Larsson, S. C., Wolk, K., Brismar, K., & Wolk, A. (2005). Association of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor I in middle-aged and elderly men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81(5), 1163–1167.Google Scholar
  62. Levine, M. E., Suarez, J. A., Brandhorst, S., Balasubramanian, P., Cheng, C. W., Madia, F., Fontana, L., Mirisola, M. G., Guevara-Aguirre, J., Wan, J., Passarino, G., Kennedy, B. K., Wei, M., Cohen, P., Crimmins, E. M., & Longo, V. D. (2014). Low protein intake is associated with a major reduction in IGF-1, cancer, and overall mortality in the 65 and younger but not older population. Cell Metabolism, 19(3), 407–417. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.02.006. PubMed PMID: 24606898; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3988204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Li, Z., Gu, M., & Cen, Y. (2014). Age at first birth and melanoma risk: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 7(12), 5201–5209. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25664022; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4307469.Google Scholar
  64. Locatelli, V., & Bianchi, V. E. (2014). Effect of GH/IGF-1 on bone metabolism and osteoporsosis. International Journal of Endocrinology, 2014, 235060. doi: 10.1155/2014/235060. PubMed PMID: 25147565, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4132406, Epub 2014 Jul 23. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. MacMahon, B., & Worcester, J. (1966). Age at menopause. United States – 1960–1962. Vital Health Statistics Series, 11(19), 1–20.Google Scholar
  66. Mastrangelo, G., Grange, J. M., Fadda, E., Fedeli, U., Buja, A., & Lange, J. H. (2005). Lung cancer risk: Effect of dairy farming and the consequence of removing that occupational exposure. American Journal of Epidemiology, 161(11), 1037–1046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McArdle, P. F., Pollin, T. I., O’Connell, J. R., Sorkin, J. D., Agarwala, R., Schäffer, A. A., Streeten, E. A., King, T. M., Shuldiner, A. R., & Mitchell, B. D. (2006). Does having children extend life span? A genealogical study of parity and longevity in the Amish. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 61(2), 190–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McKinlay, S., Jefferys, M., & Thompson, B. (1972). An investigation of the age at menopause. Journal of Biosocial Science, 4(2), 161–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. McLay, R. N., Maki, P. M., & Lyketsos, C. G. (2003). Nulliparity and late menopause are associated with decreased cognitive decline. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 15(2), 161–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mellemkjær, L., Christensen, J., Frederiksen, K., Baker, J. L., Olsen, A., Sørensen, T. I., & Tjønneland, A. (2012). Leg length, sitting height and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. British Journal of Cancer, 107(1), 165–168. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2012.244. PubMed PMID: 22677900, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3389429, Epub 2012 Jun 7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Modi, S. R., Collins, J. J., & Relman, D. A. (2014). Antibiotics and the gut microbiota. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 124(10), 4212–4218. doi: 10.1172/JCI72333. Epub 2014 Oct 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mondul, A. M., Rodriguez, C., Jacobs, E. J., & Calle, E. E. (2005). Age at natural menopause and cause-specific mortality. American Journal of Epidemiology, 162(11), 1089–1097. Epub 2005 Oct 12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Moore, S. C., Rajaraman, P., Dubrow, R., Darefsky, A. S., Koebnick, C., Hollenbeck, A., Schatzkin, A., & Leitzmann, M. F. (2009). Height, body mass index, and physical activity in relation to glioma risk. Cancer Research, 69(21), 8349–8355. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-1669. PubMed PMID: 19808953, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2783605, Epub 2009 Oct 6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Morabia, A., & Costanza, M. C. (1998). International variability in ages at menarche, first livebirth, and menopause. World Health Organization Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives. American Journal of Epidemiology, 148(12), 1195–1205. Erratum in: Am J Epidemiol 1999 Sep 1;150(5):546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mosby, T. T., Cosgrove, M., Sarkardei, S., Platt, K. L., & Kaina, B. (2012). Nutrition in adult and childhood cancer: Role of carcinogens and anti-carcinogens. Anticancer Research, 32(10), 4171–4192. Review.Google Scholar
  76. Musaro, A. (2012). To the heart of the problem. mIGF-1: Local effort for global impact. Aging, 4, 377–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Oikonomopoulou, K., Brinc, D., Kyriacou, K., & Diamandis, E. P. (2013). Infection and cancer: Revaluation of the hygiene hypothesis. Clinical Cancer Research, 19(11), 2834–2841. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-3661. Epub 2013 Mar 27. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ossewaarde, M. E., Bots, M. L., Verbeek, A. L., Peeters, P. H., van der Graaf, Y., Grobbee, D. E., & van der Schouw, Y. T. (2005). Age at menopause, cause-specific mortality and total life expectancy. Epidemiology, 16(4), 556–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Parsonnet, J. (Ed.). (1999). Microbes and malignancy: Infection as a cause of human cancers. New York: Oxford University Press. 465 pp. ISBN: 0-19-510401-3.Google Scholar
  80. Pearce, N., & Douwes, J. (2006). The global epidemiology of asthma in children. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 10(2), 125–132. Review.Google Scholar
  81. Pollak, M. (2008). Insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling in neoplasia. Nature Reviews Cancer, 8(12), 915–928. doi: 10.1038/nrc2536. Review. Erratum in: Nat Rev Cancer. 2009 Mar;9(3):224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Prescott, J., Du, M., Wong, J. Y., Han, J., & De Vivo, I. (2012). Paternal age at birth is associated with offspring leukocyte telomere length in the nurses’ health study. Human Reproduction, 27(12), 3622–3631. doi: 10.1093/humrep/des314. PubMed PMID: 22940768, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3501241, Epub 2012 Aug 30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rahman, I., Åkesson, A., & Wolk, A. (2015). Relationship between age at natural menopause and risk of heart failure. Menopause, 22(1), 12–16. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ravdin, P. M., Cronin, K. A., Howlader, N., Berg, C. D., Chlebowski, R. T., Feuer, E. J., Edwards, B. K., & Berry, D. A. (2007). The decrease in breast-cancer incidence in 2003 in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 356(16), 1670–1674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Renehan, A. G., Zwahlen, M., Minder, C., O’Dwyer, S. T., Shalet, S. M., & Egger, M. (2004). Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, and cancer risk: Systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Lancet, 363, 1346–1353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ries, L. A., Wingo, P. A., Miller, D. S., Howe, H. L., Weir, H. K., Rosenberg, H. M., Vernon, S. W., Cronin, K., & Edwards, B. K. (2000). The annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1973–1997, with a special section on colorectal cancer. Cancer, 88(10), 2398–2424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rose, M. R., & Charlesworth, B. (1981). Genetics of life history in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Exploratory selection experiments. Genetics, 97(1), 187–196. PubMed PMID: 6790341, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1214383.Google Scholar
  88. Roubenoff, R., Parise, H., Payette, H. A., Abad, L. W., D’Agostino, R., Jacques, P. F., Wilson, P. W., Dinarello, C. A., & Harris, T. B. (2003). Cytokines, insulin-like growth factor 1, sarcopenia, and mortality in very old community-dwelling men and women: The Framingham Heart Study. American Journal of Medicine, 115(6), 429–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ruiz-Torres, A., & Soares de Melo Kirzner, M. (2002). Ageing and longevity are related to growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 secretion. Gerontology, 48(6), 401–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Savage, T., Derraik, J. G., Miles, H. L., Mouat, F., Hofman, P. L., & Cutfield, W. S. (2013). Increasing maternal age is associated with taller stature and reduced abdominal fat in their children. PLoS ONE, 8(3), e58869. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058869. PubMed PMID: 23527040, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3604016, Epub 2013 Mar 20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sheflin, A. M., Whitney, A. K., & Weir, T. L. (2014). Cancer-promoting effects of microbial dysbiosis. Current Oncology Reports, 16(10), 406. doi: 10.1007/s11912-014-0406-0. PubMed PMID: 25123079, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4180221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sing, D., & Sing, C. F. (2010). Impact of direct soil exposures from airborne dust and geophagy on human health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7(3), 1205–1223. doi: 10.3390/ijerph7031205. PubMed PMID: 20617027, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2872320, Epub 2010 Mar 19. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Singh, G. K., & van Dyck, P. C. (2010). Infant mortality in the United States, 1935–2007: Over seven decades of progress and disparities. A 75th Anniversary Publication. Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau. Rockville: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.mchb.hrsa.gov/
  94. Sloan, D. A., Fleiszer, D. M., Richards, G. K., Murray, D., & Brown, R. A. (1983). Increased incidence of experimental colon cancer associated with long-term metronidazole therapy. American Journal of Surgery, 145(1), 66–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Smith, M. A., Simon, R., Strickler, H. D., McQuillan, G., Ries, L. A., & Linet, M. S. (1998). Evidence that childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is associated with an infectious agent linked to hygiene conditions. Cancer Causes Control, 9(3), 285–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Snowdon, D. A., Kane, R. L., Beeson, W. L., Burke, G. L., Sprafka, J. M., Potter, J., Iso, H., Jacobs, D. R., Jr., & Phillips, R. L. (1989). Is early natural menopause a biologic marker of health and aging? American Journal of Public Health, 79(6), 709–714. PubMed PMID: 2729468, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1349628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sonntag, W. E., Deak, F., Ashpole, N., Toth, P., Csiszar, A., Freeman, W., & Ungvari, Z. (2013). Insulin-like growth factor-1 in CNS and cerebrovascular aging. Frontiers of Aging Neurosciences, 5(July 2), 27. doi:0.3389/fnagi.2013.00027. eCollection 2013. PubMed PMID: 23847531; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3698444.Google Scholar
  98. Sun, F., Sebastiani, P., Schupf, N., Bae, H., Andersen, S. L., McIntosh, A., Abel, H., Elo, I. T., & Perls, T. T. (2015). Extended maternal age at birth of last child and women’s longevity in the Long Life Family Study. Menopause, 22(1), 26–31. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000276. PubMed PMID: 24977462, PubMed Central PMCID:PMC4270889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Te Morenga, L., Mallard, S., & Mann, J. (2012). Dietary sugars and body weight: Systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. BMJ, 346, e7492. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e7492. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. The 2013 Berlaymont Declaration on Endocrine Disrupters http://www.ipcp.ethz.ch/IPCP_Berlaymont.html. Accessed 5 Jan 2015.
  101. Thornton, M. J. (2013). Estrogens and aging skin. Dermatoendocrinol, 5(2), 264–270. doi: 10.4161/derm.23872. PubMed PMID: 24194966, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3772914, Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tierney, M. C., Ryan, J., Ancelin, M. L., Moineddin, R., Rankin, S., Yao, C., & MacLusky, N. J. (2013). Lifelong estrogen exposure and memory in older postmenopausal women. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 34(3), 601–608. doi: 10.3233/JAD-122062.Google Scholar
  103. Torella, D., Rota, M., Nurzynska, D., Musso, E., Monsen, A., Shiraishi, I., Zias, E., Walsh, K., Rosenzweig, A., Sussman, M. A., Urbanek, K., Nadal-Ginard, B., Kajstura, J., Anversa, P., & Leri, A. (2004). Cardiac stem cell and myocyte aging, heart failure, and insulin-like growth factor-1 overexpression. Circulation Research, 94(4), 514–524. Epub 2004 Jan 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Travier, N., Gridley, G., De Roos, A. J., Plato, N., Moradi, T., & Boffetta, P. (2002). Cancer incidence of dry cleaning, laundry and ironing workers in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 28(5), 341–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Trejo, J. L., Piriz, J., Llorens-Martin, M. V., Fernandez, A. M., Bolós, M., LeRoith, D., Nuñez, A., & Torres-Aleman, I. (2007). Central actions of liver-derived insulin-like growth factor I underlying its pro-cognitive effects. Molecular Psychiatry, 12(12), 1118–1128. Epub 2007 Sep 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ukraintseva, S. V., & Yashin, A. I. (2003a). Individual aging and cancer risk: How are they related? Demo Research, 9–8, 163–196. doi: 10.4054/DemRes.2003.9.8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ukraintseva, S. V., & Yashin, A. I. (2003b). Opposite phenotypes of cancer and aging arise from alternative regulation of common signaling pathways. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1010, 489–492. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ukraintseva, S. V., & Yashin, A. I. (2005). Treating cancer with embryonic stem cells: Rationale comes from aging studies. Frontiers in Bioscience, 10, 588–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ukraintseva, S. V., Arbeev, K. G., & Yashin, A. I. (2008). Epidemiology of hormone-associated cancers as a reflection of age. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 630, 57–71. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ukraintseva, S. V., Arbeev, K. G., Akushevich, I., Kulminski, A., Arbeeva, L., Culminskaya, I., Akushevich, L., & Yashin, A. I. (2010). Trade-offs between cancer and other diseases: Do they exist and influence longevity? Rejuvenation Research, 13(4), 387–396. PubMed PMID: 20426618, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2959185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Ukraintseva, S., Yashin, A., Arbeev, K., Kulminski, A., Akushevich, I., Wu, D., Joshi, G., Land, K. C., & Stallard, E. (2016). Puzzling role of genetic risk factors in human longevity: “Risk alleles” as pro-longevity variants. Biogerontology, 17(1), 109–127. doi: 10.1007/s10522-015-9600-1. PubMed PMID: 26306600, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4724477, Epub 2015 Aug 26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. van der Veeken, J., Oliveira, S., Schiffelers, R. M., Storm, G., van Bergen En Henegouwen, P. M., & Roovers, R. C. (2009). Crosstalk between epidermal growth factor receptor-and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling: Implications for cancer therapy. Current Cancer Drug Targets, 9(6), 748–760. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Vasan, R. S., Sullivan, L. M., D’Agostino, R. B., Roubenoff, R., Harris, T., Sawyer, D. B., Levy, D., & Wilson, P. W. F. (2003). Serum insulin-like growth factor I and risk for heart failure in elderly individuals without a previous myocardial infarction: The Framingham Heart Study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 139, 642–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Vaupel, J. W., Carey, J. R., Christensen, K., Johnson, T. E., Yashin, A. I., Holm, N. V., Iachine, I. A., Kannisto, V., Khazaeli, A. A., Liedo, P., Longo, V. D., Zeng, Y., Manton, K. G., & Curtsinger, J. W. (1998). Biodemographic trajectories of longevity. Science, 280(5365), 855–860. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Veldhuis, J. D., Anderson, S. M., Patrie, J. T., & Bowers, C. Y. (2004). Estradiol supplementation in postmenopausal women doubles rebound-like release of growth hormone (GH) triggered by sequential infusion and withdrawal of somatostatin: Evidence that estrogen facilitates endogenous GH-releasing hormone drive. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89(1), 121–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Vinciguerra, M., Musaro, A., & Rosenthal, N. (2010). Regulation of muscle atrophy in aging and disease. In N. Tavernarakis (Ed.), Protein metabolism and homeostasis in aging (pp. 211–233).Google Scholar
  117. Watson, A. J., & Collins, P. D. (2011). Colon cancer: A civilization disorder. Digestive Diseases, 29(2), 222–228. doi: 10.1159/000323926. Epub 2011 Jul 5. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Willett, W. (1989). The search for the causes of breast and colon cancer. Nature, 338(6214), 389–394. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wohlfahrt, J., & Melbye, M. (2001). Age at any birth is associated with breast cancer risk. Epidemiology, 12(1), 68–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Yang, J., Anzo, M., & Cohen, P. (2005). Control of aging and longevity by IGF-I signaling. Experimental Gerontology, 40(11), 867–872. Epub 2005 Sep 8. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Yashin, A. I., Ukraintseva, S. V., De Benedictis, G., Anisimov, V. N., Butov, A. A., Arbeev, K., Jdanov, D. A., Boiko, S. I., Begun, A. S., Bonafe, M., & Franceschi, C. (2001). Have the oldest old adults ever been frail in the past? A hypothesis that explains modern trends in survival. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 56(10), B432–B442. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Yashin, A. I., Ukraintseva, S. V., Akushevich, I. V., Arbeev, K. G., Kulminski, A., & Akushevich, L. (2009). Trade-off between cancer and aging: what role do other diseases play? Evidence from experimental and human population studies. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 130(1-2), 98–104. PubMed PMID: 18452970, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2708086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Yeap, B. B., Paul Chubb, S. A., Lopez, D., Ho, K. K., Hankey, G. J., & Flicker, L. (2013). Associations of insulin-like growth factor-I and its binding proteins and testosterone with frailty in older men. Clinical Endocrinology (Oxford), 78(5), 752–759. doi: 10.1111/cen.12052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Yoshimoto, N., Nishiyama, T., Toyama, T., Takahashi, S., Shiraki, N., Sugiura, H., Endo, Y., Iwasa, M., Fujii, Y., & Yamashita, H. (2011). Genetic and environmental predictors, endogenous hormones and growth factors, and risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in Japanese women. Cancer Science, 102(11), 2065–2072. doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2011.02047.x. Epub 2011 Aug 24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zhang, Y., Kreger, B. E., Dorgan, J. F., Cupples, L. A., Myers, R. H., Splansky, G. L., Schatzkin, A., & Ellison, R. C. (1999). Parental age at child’s birth and son’s risk of prostate cancer. The Framingham Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 150(11), 1208–1212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Zota, A. R., Aschengrau, A., Rudel, R. A., & Brody, J. G. (2010). Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: A case-control study. Environmental Health, 9, 40. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-9-40. PubMed PMID: 20646273, PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2918587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Svetlana V. Ukraintseva
    • 1
    Email author
  • Konstantin G. Arbeev
    • 1
  • Igor Akushevich
    • 1
  • Alexander M. Kulminski
    • 1
  • Eric Stallard
    • 1
  • Anatoliy I. Yashin
    • 1
  1. 1.Biodemography of Aging Research Unit, Center for Population Health and AgingDuke Population Research Institute & Social Science Research Institute at Duke UniversityDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations