Advertisement

The Changing Face of Reef Building

  • Dennis K. HubbardEmail author
  • Wolf-Christian Dullo
Chapter
Part of the Coral Reefs of the World book series (CORW, volume 6)

Abstract

Declining calcification and accelerating sea-level rise have brought us ever closer to the point where coral reefs may not be able to keep pace. Even if this is insufficient to change reef-community structure or totally overtop low reef islands in the twenty-first century, the impacts on reefs and the organisms that depend on them will still be profound. Patterns of sea-level rise have varied spatially in the past due to both local tectonics and regional crustal responses to deglaciation. The result has been regionally disparate sea-level histories that complicate our understanding of the links between past sea level and reef development.

At the same time, gaps remain in our understanding of how, and how fast, reefs build. Holocene reefs-accretion rates (generally <5 mm/year) are lower than previous estimates (10–15 mm/year), making coral reefs more vulnerable to rising sea level than has been assumed. Furthermore, the conflation of coral growth and reef accretion has provided an overly simplistic view of reef building that focuses on coral abundance and calcification. Protocols have been suggested to quantify the changing balance between carbonate production and bioerosion, but these still ignore the role of physical processes that redistribute and remove material from the reef, a scenario that will become even more important as the intensity of tropical storms increases. Holocene cores show that accretion does not mimic the depth dependence of calcification, suggesting that predictions based solely on biological assessments could be flawed.

Uniformitarianism, the idea that “the present is the key to the past”, has been a fundamental tool for geologists trying to unravel the development of ancient reefs using their modern counterparts. As we try to separate anthropogenic change from natural variability that operates on cycles longer than human lifetimes, we might consider whether this concept could be reversed to help predict the fate of coral reefs – or to at least examine some of our critical assumptions about reef accretion and sea-level rise. This chapter considers some of our long-standing models of sea level and reef building, using recent data to provide a more complete picture of the factors involved in both the recent geologic past and the immediate future. The goal is to provide a better understanding of interactions between the two that might allow better models of ancient reefs while also providing more realistic answers to the question, “Will coral reefs keep up with rising sea level in the twenty-first century?”

Keywords

Holocene Reef accretion Sea level Reef drowning Carbonate budget Reef islands 

References

  1. Adey WH (1978) Coral reef morphogenesis: a multidimensional model. Science 202: 831–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adey WH, Burke RB (1976) Holocene bioherms (algal ridges and bank-barrier refs) of the Caribbean. GSA Bull. 87:95–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adey WH, Burke RB (1977) Holocene Bioherms of Lesser Antilles - geologic control of development. in: Frost S, Weiss M, Saunders J (eds.). Reefs and related carbonates – ecology and sedimentology. AAPG Studies in Geology 4:67–81Google Scholar
  4. Adey WH, Macintyre IG, Stuckenrath R, Dill RF (1977) Relict barrier reef system off St. Croix: its implications with respect to late Cenozoic coral reef development in the western Atlantic. Third International Coral Reef Symposium 2:15–21Google Scholar
  5. Alvarez-Filip L, Dulvy NK, Gill JA, Cote IM, Watkinson AR (2009) Flattening of Caribbean coral reefs: region-wide declines in architectural complexity. Proceedings of the Royal Society 276:3019–3025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson DA, Armstrong RA, Weil E (2013) Hyperspectral sensing of disease stress in the Caribbean reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata - perspectives for the field of coral disease modeling. PLoS One 8: doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0081478
  7. Antonius A (1973) New observations on coral destruction in reefs. Tenth Meeting of the Association of Island Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean (abstract), University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR. 10: 3Google Scholar
  8. Arienzo, M (2008) Temporal and spatial distribution of corals at Tague Bay reef and Buck Island National Monument reef, St. Croix USVI. Proc 21st Keck SYmposium, p 157–161, Amherst MAGoogle Scholar
  9. Aronson RB, Precht WF (2001) White-band disease and the changing face of Caribbean coral reefs. Hydrobiologia 460:25–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aronson RB, Precht WF (2006) Conservation, precaution, and Caribbean reefs. Coral Reefs 25:441–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Becker M, Meyssignac B, Letetrel C, Llovel W, Cazenave A, Delcroix T (2012) Sea level variations at tropical Pacific islands since 1950. Global and Planetary Change, 80-81:85–98Google Scholar
  12. Berry W (1987) Home Economics. North Point Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Blanchon P (2005) Comments on ‘Corrected western Atlantic sea-level curve for the last 11,000 years based on calibrated 14C dates from Acropora palmata framework and intertidal mangrove peat’. Coral Reefs 24:183–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blanchon P (2010) Reef demise and backstepping during the last interglacial, northeast Yucatan. Coral Reefs 29:481–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blanchon P (2011) Back-stepping In: Hopley D (ed) Encyclopedia of Modern Coral Reefs: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Springer, p 77–84Google Scholar
  16. Blanchon P, Shaw J (1995) Reef drowning during the last deglaciation: evidence for catastrophic sea-level rise and ice-sheet collapse. Geology 23:4–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bosscher H (1992) Growth potential of coral reefs and carbonate platforms. Proefschrift Vrie Universiteit, Amsterdam, 2005 157pGoogle Scholar
  18. Bosscher H, Schlager W (1993) Computer simulation of reef growth. Sedimentology 39:503–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bruckner AW, Bruckner RJ (2007) The recent decline of Montastraea annularis (complex) coral populations in western Curaçao: a cause for concern? Int J Trop Biol 54:45–58Google Scholar
  20. Bruno JF, Selig ER (2007) Regional decline of coral cover in the Indo-Pacific: timing, extent and subregional comparisons. PLoS One 2(8): e711. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0000711 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Burke L, Reytar K, Spalding M, Perry A (2011) Reefs at Risk Revisited. World Resources Institute, 1–112Google Scholar
  22. Burke R, Adey W, Macintyre I (1989) Overview of the Holocene history, architecture and structural components of Tague reef and lagoon, in: Hubbard, DK (ed.) Terrestrial and marine geology of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Special Pub 8, West Indies Laboratory: p 105–10.Google Scholar
  23. Burpee A (2008) Tropical cascades and sediment production in marine reserves. Proc. 21st Keck Symposium, http://www.keckgeology.org/symposium-21, p. 167–171, Amherst MA
  24. Bythell JC, Gladfelter EH, Gladfelter WH, French KE, Hillis Z (1989) Buck Island Reef National Monument - changes in modern ref community structure since 1976. In: Hubbard DK (ed.) Terrestrial and marine geology of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. West Indies Lab. Spec Pub. 8, Fairleigh Dickinson Univ. p145–153Google Scholar
  25. Cabanes C, Cazenave A, Le Provost C (2001) Sea level rise during past 40 years determined from satellite and in situ observations. Science 294:840–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cabioch G, Montaggioni F, Faure G (1995). Holocene initiation and development of New Caledonian fringing reefs. South-West Pacific. Coral Reefs 14:131–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Camoin GF, Colonna M, Montaggioni LF, Casanova J, Faure G, Thomassin BA (1997) Holocene sea level changes and reef development in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Coral Reefs 16:247–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Camoin GF, Seard C, Deschamps P, Webster JM, Abbey E, Braga JC, Iryu Y, Durand N, E. Bard E, Hamelin B, Yokoyama Y, Thomas AL, Henderson GM, Dussouillez P (2012) Reef response to sea-level and environmental changes during the last deglaciation: Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 310, Tahiti Sea Level. Geology 40:643–646Google Scholar
  29. Carpenter KE, Abrar M, Aeby G, Aronson RB, Banks S, Bruckner A, Chiriboga A, Cortes J, Delbeek JC, DeVantier L, Edgar GJ, Edwards AJ, Fenner D, Guzman HM, Hoeksema BW, Hodgson G, Johan O, Licuanan WY, Livingstone SR, Lovell ER, Moore JA, Obura DO, Ochavillo D, Polidoro BA, Precht WF, Quibilan MC, Reboton C, Richards ZT, Rogers AD, Sanciangco J, Sheppard A, Sheppard C, Smith J, Stuart S, Turak E, Veron JEN, Wallace C, Weil E, Wood E (2008). One-third of reef-building corals face elevated extinction risk from climate change and local impacts. Science 321:560–563Google Scholar
  30. Cesar H, Burke L, Pet-Soede L (2003) The economics of worldwide coral reef degradation. Cesar Environmental Consulting (CEEC), Arnham, Netherlands, 23pGoogle Scholar
  31. Chalker BE (1981) Simulating light-saturation curves for photosynthesis and calcification by reef-building corals. Mar Biol 63:135–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chalker BE, Barnes DJ, Dunlop WC, Jokiel PI (1988) Light and reef building corals. Interdisc. Sci. Rev. 13:222–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chambers D, Merrifield M, Nerem RS (2012) Sea level oscillation of 60 years. Geophys Res Let 39:  10.1029/2012GL052885
  34. Chappell J (1974) Geology of coral terraces, Huon Peninsula, New Guinea: A study of Quaternary tectonic movements and sea-level changes Bull Geol Soc Am 85:553–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Chollett I, Mumby P (2013) Reefs at last resort: locating and assessing thermal refugia in the wider Caribbean. Biol Conserv 167:179-186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Church JA, White NJ (2006) A 20th century acceleration in global sea-level rise. Geophysical Research Letters 33: L01602 4 p. doi: 10.1029/2005GL024826
  37. Church JA, White NJ (2011) Sea-level rise from the late 19th to the early 21st century. Surveys in Geophysics 32:585–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Clark JA, Farrell WE, Peltier WR (1978) Global changes in postglacial sea level: a numerical calculation. Quaternary Research 9:265–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Corrochano D, Barba P, Colmenero JR (2012) Glacioeustatic cyclicity of a Pennsylvanian carbonate platform in a foreland basin setting: An example from the Bachende Formation of the Cantabrian Zone (NW Spain). Sedimentary Geology 245:76–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Costanza R, De Groot R, Sutton P, van der Ploeg S, Anderson SJ, Kubiszewski I, Farber S, Turner RK (2014) Changes in the global value of ecosystem services. Global Environmental Change 26:152–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Curry JA, Webster PJ, Holland GJ (2006) Mixing politics and science in testing the hypothesis that greenhouse warming is causing a global increase in hurricane intensity. Bull Amer Meteor Soc 87:1025–1037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Darwin C (1842) The structure and distribution of coral reefs. London, Smith Elder and Co. 215 pGoogle Scholar
  43. Davies P, Montaggioni L (1985) Reef growth and sea level change: the environmental signature. Proc 5th Intl Coral Reef Symp 3:477–511Google Scholar
  44. Davies PJ (2011) Great Barrier Reef: origin, evolution, and modern development. In: Hopley D (ed.) Encyclopedia of modern coral reefs. Springer, the Netherlands. p 504–534Google Scholar
  45. Davies PJ, Hopley D (1983) Growth fabrics and growth rates of Holocene reefs in the Great Barrier Reef. BMR J of Australian Geol and Geophys 8:237–251Google Scholar
  46. Davies PJ, Marshall JF (1980) A model of epicontinental reef growth. Nature 287:37–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Davies PJ, Marshall JF, Hopley D (1985) Relationship between reef growth and sea level in the Great Barrier Reef. Proc. Fifth Coral Reef Symp. 3:95–103Google Scholar
  48. De’ath G, Fabricius KE, Sweatman H, Puotinen M (2012) The 27–year decline of coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef and its causes. Procceedings of the National Academy of Science 109:17995–17999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. deBoer B, van deWal RSW, Bintanja R, Lourens L, Tuenter E (2010), Cenozoic global ice-volume and temperature simulations with 1-D ice-sheet models forced by benthic δ 18O records, Ann. Glaciol., 51 23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dechnik B, Webster JM, Davies PJ, Braga J-C, Reimer PJ (2015) Holocene “turn-on” and evolution of the southern Great Barrier Reef: revisiting reef cores from the Capricorn Bunker Group. Marine Geology 363:174–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Descombes P, Wisz MA, Leprieur F, Heine C, Olsen S, Swingedouw D, Kulbicki M, Mouillot D, Pellissier L (2015) Forecasted coral reef decline in marine biodiversity hotspots under climate change. Global Climate Change doi:  10.1111/gcb.12868 Google Scholar
  52. DiCaprio L, Müller RD, Gurnis M (2010) A dynamic process for drowning carbonate reefs on the northeastern Australian margin. Geology 38:11–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Dickinson WR (2003) Impact of Mid-Holocene hydro-isostatic highstand in regional sea level on habitability of islands in Pacific Oceania. Journal of Coastal Research 19:489–502Google Scholar
  54. Done TJ (1982) Patterns in the distribution of coral communities across the central Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 1:95–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dullo, W-C (2005) Coral growth and reef growth: a brief review. Facies 51:33–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Dustan P (1977) Vitality of reef coral populations off Key Largo, Florida: recruitment and mortality. Env Geol 2:1:51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Edinger EN (2003) Fossilization Processes: Bioerosion. In: Briggs DEG, Crowther PR, editors. Palaeobiology II, Blackwell Publishing company, Berlin, Germany. 273–276.Google Scholar
  58. Eisenhauer A, Zhu ZR, Collins LB, Wyrwoll KH, Eichstatte R (1996) The last interglacial sea level change: New evidence from the Abrolhos islands, West Australia, Geol. Rundschau 85:606–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Emanuel KA (2005) Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years. Nature 436:686–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Erskine RD, Vail PR (1987) Seismic stratigraphy of the Exmouth Plateau. In: Bally, AW (ed.) Atlas of Seismic Stratigraphy. AAPG Studies in Geology 27:163–173Google Scholar
  61. Fagerstrom A (1987) The Evolution of Reef Communities. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 600 pGoogle Scholar
  62. Fairbanks RG (1989) A 17,000-year glacio-eustatic sea level record: influence of glacial melting rates on the Younger Dryas event and deep-ocean circulation. Nature 342:637–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Farber C, Wisshak M, Pyko I, Bellou N, Freiwald Z (2015) Effects of water depth, seasonal exposure and substrate orientation on microbial bioerosion in the Ionian Sea (eastern Mediterranean). Plos One, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126495 Google Scholar
  64. Ferrario F, Beck MW, Storlazzi CD, Fiorenza M, Shepard CC, Airoldi L (2013) The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation. Nature Communications, 5:3794 | doi:  10.1038/ncomms4794
  65. Fletcher CH, Richmond BM (2010) Climate change in the Federated States of Micronesia: food and water security, climate risk management and adaptive strategies. Report of Findings, Univ. of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program, 28 pGoogle Scholar
  66. Gardner TA, Cote IM, Gill JA, Grant A, Watkinson AR (2003) Long-Term Region-Wide Declines in Caribbean Corals. Science 301:958–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Garrett P, Ducklow H (1975) Coral Diseases in Bermuda. Nature 253:349–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Geister, J., 1977. The influence of wave exposure on ecological zonation of Caribbean coral reefs. Proc 3rd Intl Coral Reef Symp 1:23–29.Google Scholar
  69. Gischler E (2006) Comment on ‘Corrected western Atlantic sea-level curve for the last 11,000 years based on calibrated 14C dates from Acropora palmate framework and intertidal mangrove peat’ Coral Reefs 2:273–279Google Scholar
  70. Gischler E (2008) Acretion patterns in Holocene tropical coral reefs: do massive coral reefs in deeper water with slowly growing corals accrete faster than shallower branched corals with rapidly growing corals? Intl J Earth Sci 97:851–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gischler E, Hudson JH (2004) Holocene development of the Belize barrier reef. Sedimentary Geology 164:223–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gischler E, Hudson JH, Pisera A (2008) Late Quaternary reef growth and sea level in the Maldives (Indian Ocean). Mar Geol 250:104–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gladfelter WB (1982) White-Band Disease in Acropora palmata: implications for the structure and growth of shallow reefs. Bull Mar Sci 32:639–643Google Scholar
  74. Gladfelter WB, Gladfelter EH, Monahan RK, Ogden JC, Dill RF (1977) Environmental studies of Buck Island Reef National Monument. US Dept. of Interior, National Park Service Report, Washington DC, 135 pGoogle Scholar
  75. Glynn P (1996) Coral reef bleaching: facts, hypotheses and implications, . Global Change Biology 2:495–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Glynn PW (1997) Bioerosion and coral-reef growth: a dynamic balance. In: Birkeland (ed.) Life and death of coral reefs. Chapman & Hall, New York, p 68–95Google Scholar
  77. Glynn PW, Manzello DP (2015) Bioerosion and coral reef growth: a dynamic balance. In: Birkeland C. (ed.) Coral reefs in the anthropocene. Springer, Dordrecht, p 67–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Gray SC, Hein JR (2005) Lagoonal reef accretion and sea-level history from three atolls in the Cook Islands, central South Pacific. J Coast Res 42:253–264Google Scholar
  79. Grigg RW (1982) Darwin Point: a threshold for atoll formation. Coral Reefs 1:29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Grinsted A, Moore JC, Jevrejeva S (2009) Reconstructing sea level from paleo and projected temperatures 200 to 2100 AD. Clim Dyn 34:461–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hansen (1988) The greenhouse effect: impacts on current global temperature and regional heat waves. Statement to the United States Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. June 23, 1988, 6pGoogle Scholar
  82. Hansen J, Sato M, Russell G, Kharecha P (2013) Climate sensitivity, sea level and atmospheric carbon dioxide. Phil Trans Royal Soc A 371:Google Scholar
  83. Harvell CD, Aronson R, Baron N, Connell J, and others (2004) The rising tide of ocean diseases: unsolved problems and research priorities. Front Ecol Environ 2:375–382Google Scholar
  84. Hemer MA, Fan Y, Mori N, Semedo A, Wang XL (2013) Projected changes in wave climate from a multi-model ensemble, Nature Climate Change. Nature Climate Change 3:471–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Hetzinger S, Pfeiffer M, Dullo W-C, Keenlyside N, Latif M, Zinke J (2008) Caribbean coral tracks Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and past hurricane activity. Geology 36:11–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Highsmith RC (1980) Geographic patterns of coral bioerosion: a productivity hypothesis. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 46:177–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hinkel J, Jaeger C, Nichols RJ, Lowe J, Renn O, Peijun S (2015) Sea-level rise scenarios and coastal risk management. Nature Climate Change 5:188–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hoegh-Guldberg O, Mumby P, Hooten AJ, Steneck RS, Greenfield P, Gomez E, Harvell CD, Sale PF, Edwards AJ, Caldeira K, Knowlton N, Eakin CM, Iglesias-Prieto R, Muthiga N, Bradbury RH, Dubi A, Hatziolos ME (2007) Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science 318:1737–1742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hopley D (1989) Coral reefs: zonation, zonality and gradients. Essener Geog Arbeit 18: 79–123Google Scholar
  90. Hopley D, Smithers SG, Parnell KE (2007) The geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef: development, diversity and change. Cambridge University Press, 532 pGoogle Scholar
  91. Hubbard D, Gischler E, Davies P, Montaggioni L, Camoin L, Dullo W-C, Storlazzi C, Field M, Fletcher C, Grossman E, SHeppard C, Lescinsky H, Fenner D, McManus J, Scheffers S (2014) Island Outlook: warm and swampy. Science 345:1461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hubbard DK. (1986) Sedimentation as a control of reef development: St. Croix. U.S.V.I. Coral Reefs 5:117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hubbard DK (1992) Hurricane-induced sediment transport in open-shelf tropical systems - an example from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. J Sedim Petrol 62:946–960Google Scholar
  94. Hubbard DK (1997) Dynamic processes of coral-reef development, In: Birkeland C (Ed.) Life and death of Coral Reefs, Chapman and Hall Publishers, New York, p 43–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hubbard DK (2009) Depth-related and species-related patterns of Holocene reef accretion in the Caribbean and western Atlantic: a critical assessment of existing models. In: Swart PK, Eberli G, McKenzie J (eds) Perspectives in Carbonate Geology. Wiley-Blackwell, p 1–18Google Scholar
  96. Hubbard DK (2011) Eastern Caribbean reefs. In: Hopley D, Encyclopedia of modern coral reefs, Springer, the Netherlands, p 338–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hubbard DK (2014) Holocene accretion rates and styles for Caribbean coral reefs: lessons for the past and future. In: Verwer Km Playton TE, Harris PM (eds.) Deposits, architecture and controls of carbonate margin, slope and basin settings. SEPM Spec. Publ. 105:264–281, Tulsa OKGoogle Scholar
  98. Hubbard DK (2015) Reef biology and geology - not just a matter of scale. In: Birkeland C (ed.) Coral reefs in the anthropocene. p 43–66, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  99. Hubbard DK, Burke RB, Gill IP, Ramirez W, Sherman C (2008a) Coral-reef geology: Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands, in: Riegl BM, Dodge RE (eds.) Coral Reefs of the USA. Springer, p 263–302Google Scholar
  100. Hubbard DK, Burke RB, Gill IP (1988) Where’s the reef: the role of framework in the Holocene. Carbonates and Evaporites 13:1–9Google Scholar
  101. Hubbard DK, Burke RB, Gill IP (1998) Where’s the reef: the role of framework in the Holocene. Carbonates and Evaporites 13:3–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Hubbard DK, Gill IP, Burke RB, Morelock J (1997) Holocene reef backstepping - southwestern Puerto Rico shelf. Proc. 8th Intl Coral Reef Symp 2:1779–1784Google Scholar
  103. Hubbard DK, Gill IP, Burke RB (2001) The role of framework in modern reefs and its application to ancient systems. In: Stanley G. (Ed), The History and Sedimentology of Ancient Reef Systems, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, p 351–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Hubbard DK, Gill IP, Burke RB (2013) Holocene reef building on eastern St. Croix, US Virgin Islands: Lang Bank revisited. Coral Reefs, doi:  10.1007/s00338-013-1041-1
  105. Hubbard DK, Miller AI, Scaturo D (1990) Production and cycling of calcium carbonate in a shelf-edge reef system (St. Croic, U.S. Virgin Islands): applications to the nature of ref systems in the fossil record. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 60:335–360Google Scholar
  106. Hubbard DK, Parsons KM, Bythell JC Walker ND (1991) The effects of Hurricane Hugo on the reefs and associated environments of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands - a preliminary assessment. J. Coast Res 8: 3–48.Google Scholar
  107. Hubbard DK, Ramirez W, Cuevas D, Erickson T, Estep A (2008b) Holocene reef accretion along the north side of Bahia Enriquillo (western Dominican Republic): unique insights into patterns of reef development in response to sea-level rise. Proc. 11th Intl Coral Reef Symp 1:43–47Google Scholar
  108. Hubbard DK, Ward LG, FitzGerald DM, Hine AC (1974) Bank Margin Morphology and sedimentation, Lucaya, Grand Bahama Island. Tech Rpt No 7-CRD, Dept. of Geology, Univ. of S. Carolina, 36pGoogle Scholar
  109. Hubbard DK, Zankl H, Van Heerden I, Gill IP (2005) Holocene Reef Development Along the Northeastern St. Croix Shelf, Buck Island, U.S. Virgin Islands. J Sed Res 75:97–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Hughes TP, Baird AH, Bellwood DR, Card M, Connolly SR, Folke C, Grosberg R, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Jackson JBC, Kleymas J, Lough JM, Marshall P, Nystrom M, Palumbi SR, Pandolfi JM, Rosen B, Roughgarden J (2003) Climate change human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs. Science 301:929–933Google Scholar
  111. IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013, fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. New York NY, 1535 pGoogle Scholar
  112. Jackson JBC (1977) Reefs since Columbus. Coral Reefs 16. Coral Reefs 16:S23–S32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Jackson J. Donovan M, Cramer K, Lam V (2014) Status and trends of Caribbean coral reefs: 1970–2012. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, IUCN, Gland Switzerland, 304 pGoogle Scholar
  114. James NP, Ginsburg RN (1979) The seaward margin of Belize barrier and atoll reefs. IAS Spec. Pub. 3. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, London, Edinburgh, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  115. Jevrejeva S, Grinsted A, Moore JC (2009) Anthropogenic forcing dominates sea level rise since 1850. Geophys Res Let 36, doi:  10.1029/2009GL040216
  116. Jevrejeva S, Moore JC, Grinsted A, Woodworth PL (2008), Recent global sea level acceleration started over 200 years ago. Geophys Res Lett 35, doi:  10.1029/2008GL033611
  117. Jevrejeva S, Moore JC, Grinsted A (2012) Sea level projections to AD2500 with a new generation of climate change scenarios. Global and Planetary Change 80–81:14–20Google Scholar
  118. Johnson KG, Jackson JBC, Budd AF (2008) Caribbean reef development was independent of coral diversity over 28 million years. Science 319:1521–1523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Jokiel PL (2011) Ocean acidification and control of reef calcification by boundary layer lamination of proton flux. Bull Mar Sci 87:639–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Kench PS. Smithers SG, McLean RF, Nichol SL (2009) Holocene reef growth in the Maldives: evidence of a mid-Holocene sea-level highstand in the central Indian Ocean. GSA Bull 37:455–458Google Scholar
  121. Klaus, JS, Budd AF (2003) Comparison of Caribbean coral reef communities before and after Plio-Pleistocene faunal turnover: analyses of two Dominican Republic reef sequences. Palaios 18:3–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Kleypas JA, Buddemeier RW, Archer D, Gattuso J-P, Langdon C, Opdyke BM (1999) Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide on coral reefs. Science 284:118–120Google Scholar
  123. Klostermann L, Gischler E, Storz D, Hudson JH (2014) Sedimentary record of late Holocene event beds in a mid-ocean atoll lagoon, Maldives, Indian Ocean: Potential for deposition by tsunamis. Mar Geol 348:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Lambeck K, Chappell J (2001) Sea level change through the last glacial cycle. Science 292:679–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Land L (1979) The fate of reef-derived sediment on the North Jamaican island slope. Marine Geology 29:55–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Land LS (1974) Growth rate of a West Indian (Jamaican) reef. Proc. 2nd Intl Coral Reef Symp. 2:409–412Google Scholar
  127. Lesser PM, Slattery M, Leichter JJ (2009) Ecology of mesophotic reefs. J Exp. Mar Biol and Ecol 375:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Lessios HA, Robertson DR, Cubit JD (1984) Spread of Diadema mass mortality through the Caribbean. Science 226:335–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Lighty RG, Macintyre IG, Stuckenrath P (1978) Submerged early Holocene barrier reef, southeastern Florida shelf. Nature 276:59–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Lighty RG, Macintyre IG, Stuckenrath R (1982) Acropora palmata reef framework: a reliable indicator of the sea level in the Western Atlantic. Coral Reefs 1:125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Locker SD, Armstrong RA, Battista TA, Rooney JJ, Sherman C, Zawada DG (2010) Geomorphology od mesophotic coral ecosystems: current perspectives on morphology, distribution and mapping strategies. Coral Reefs 29:329–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Lowenstam HA (1950) Niagaran Reefs of the Great Lakes Area. GSA Memoir 67:215–248Google Scholar
  133. Lyell C (1832) Principles of geology, being an attempt to explain the former changes of the Earth’s surface, by reference to causes now in operation. London: John Murray 2: 286Google Scholar
  134. MacGeachy JK, (1977) Factors controlling sponge boring in Barbados reef corals. Proc 3rd Intl Coral Reef Symp 2:477–483Google Scholar
  135. MacGeachy JK, Stearn C W (1976). Boring by macro- organisms in the coral Montastrea annularis on Barbados reefs. Int Revue ges Hydrobiol 61:715–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Macintyre I, Multer HG, Zankl H, Hubbard D, Weiss M, Stuckenrath R (1985) Growth and depositional facies of a windward reef, Nonsuch reef complex, Nonsuch Bay, Antigua, W.I. Proc 5th Intl Coral Reef Symp 6:605–610Google Scholar
  137. Macintyre IG (1988) Modern coral reefs of western Atlantic: new geological perspective. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 72:1360–1369Google Scholar
  138. Macintyre IG, Burke RB, Stuckenrath R (1977) Thickest recorded Holocene reef section, Isla Perez core hole, Alacran Reef, Mexico. Geology 5:749–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Macintyre IG, Glynn PW (1976) Evolution of modern Caribbean fringing reef, Galeta Point. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists 60:1054–1072Google Scholar
  140. Mann P, Taylor F, Burke K, Kulstad R (1984) Subaerially exposed Holocene coral reef, Enriquillo Valley, Dominican Republic. GSA Bull 95:1084–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Mayer AG (1914) The effects of temperature upon marine animals. Carnegie Institute of Washington Papers in Marine Biology 6:3–24Google Scholar
  142. McClanahan T (2002) The near future of coral reefs. Environmental Conservation 29:460–483Google Scholar
  143. McGranahan G, Balk D, Anderson B (2007) The rising tide: assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones. Environment and Urbanization 19:17–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. McKoy H, Kennedy DM, Kench PS (2010) Sand cay evolution on reef platforms, Mamanuca Islands, Fiji. Marine Geology 269:61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. McNeil DF, Budd AF, Borne PF (1997) Earlier (late Pliocene) first appearance of the Caribbean reef-building coral Acropora palmata: stratigraphic and evolutionary implications. Geology 25:891–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Meehl GA, Collins WD, Friedlingstein P, Gaye AT, Gregory JM, Kitoh A, Knutti R, Murphy JM, Noda A, Raper SCB, Watterson IG, Weaver AJ, Zhao Z-C (2007) Global Climate Projections. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) The Physical Science Basis Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA,Google Scholar
  147. Merrifield MA, Merrifield ST, Mitchum GT (2009), An anomalous recent acceleration of global sea level rise, J. Clim. 22:5772–5781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Mesolella KJ, Matthews RK, Broecker SW, Thurber DL (1969). The astronomical theory of climatic change: Barbados data. J Geol 77:250–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Milankovitch M (1941) Canon of Insolation and the Ice Age Problem. Royal Serbian Academy Special PublicationGoogle Scholar
  150. Miller J, Muller E, Rogers C, Waara R, Atkinson A, Whelan KRT, Patterson M, Witcher B (2009) Coral disease following massive bleaching in 2005 causes 60 % decline in coral cover on reefs in the US Virgin Islands. Coral Reefs 28:925–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Mimura N, Nurse L, McLean RF, Agard J, Briguglio L, Lefale P, Payet R, Sem G (2007) Small islands. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, Linden PJvd, Hanson CE (eds), Cambridge, UK 687–716Google Scholar
  152. Mitrovica, JX and Milne, G.A. (2002) On the origin of late Holocene sea-level highstands within equatorial ocean basins’, Quat Sci Rev 2:2179–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Mitrovica, J.X. and Peltier, W.R. (1991) On postglacial geoid subsidence over the equatorial oceans. J Geophys Res 96:20,053-71Google Scholar
  154. Moberg F, Folke C (1998) Ecological goods an services of coral reef ecosystems. Ecol Econ 29:215–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Montaggioni LF (2005) History of Indo-Pacific coral reef systems since the last glaciation: development patterns and controlling factors. Earth-Sci Rev. 71:1–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Moore CH, Shedd WW (1977) Effective rates of sponge nioerosion as a function of carbonate production. Proc. 3rd Intl Coral Reef Symp 2:499–506Google Scholar
  157. Muscatine L (1990) The role of symbiotic algae in carbon and energy flux in reef corals. In: Dubinsky Z (ed.) Coral reefs of the world, Ecosystems of the world, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 25:85–87Google Scholar
  158. Nakamura T, Nakamori T (2011) A simulation model for coral reef formation: reef topographies and growth patterns responding to relative sea-level histories. In: Wright LL (ed.) Sea level rise, coastal engineering, shorelines and tides. Nova Science Publishers, London, p 251–261Google Scholar
  159. Nerem RS, Chambers D, Choe C, Mitchum GT (2010) Estimating mean sea level change from TOPEX and Jason altimeter mission. Marine Geodesy 33: 435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Neumann AC, Macintyre IG (1985) Reef responses to sea level rise: keep-up, catch-up or give-up. Proc. 5th Intl Coral Reef Symp. 3:105–110Google Scholar
  161. Newell ND, Rigby JK, Fischer AG, Whiteman AJ, Hicks LE, Bradley J. (1953) The Permian Reef Complex of the Guadalupe Mountains Region, Texas and New Mexico: A Study in Paleoecology. WH Freeman, San Francisco. 236 pGoogle Scholar
  162. Nicholls RJ, Marinova N, Lowe JA, Brown S, Vellinga P, Gusmão Dd, Hinkel J, Tol RSJ (2011) Sea-level rise and its possible impacts given a ‘beyond 4 °C world’ in the twenty-first century. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 369:161–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Nichols RJ, Casenave A (2010) Sea-level rise and its impact on coastal zones. Science 328: 1517–1520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Ogden JC (1977) Carbonate-sediment production by parrotfish and sea urchins on Caribbean reefs. In: Frost SH, Weiss MP, Saunders JB (eds.) Reefs and related carbonates. Ecology and Sedimentology, AAPG Studies in Geology 4:281–288Google Scholar
  165. Ogston AS, Field ME (2010) Predictions of turbidity due to enhanced sediment resuspension resulting from sea-level rise on a fringing coral reef: evidence from Molokai, Hawaii. Journal of Coastal Research 26:1027–1037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Pandolfi JM (1996) Limited membership in Pleistocene reef coral assemblages from the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea: Constancy during global change. Paleobiology 22:152–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Pandolfi JM (1999) Response of Pleistocene coral reefs to environmental change over long temporal scales. Amer Zool 39:113–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Pandolfi JM, Connolly SR, Marshall DJ, Cohen AL (2011) Projecting coral reef futures under global warming and ocean acidification. Science 333: 418–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Pandolfi JM, Greenstein BJ (1997) Taphonomic Alteration of Reef Corals: Effects of Reef Environment and Coral Growth Form. I. The Great Barrier Reef. Palaios 12:27–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Pandolfi JM, Jackson JBC, Baron N, Bradbury RH, Guzman HM, Hughes TP, Kappe CV, Micheli F, Ogden JC, Possingham HP, Sala E (2005) Are U.S. coral reefs on the slippery slope to slime? Science 307: 1725–1726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Pandolfi JM, Jackson JBC, Geister J (2001) Geologically sudden natural extinction of two widespread Late Pleistocene Caribbean coral reefs, In: Chettham AH, Jackson JBC, Lidgard S, McKinney (eds.) Processes from pattern in the fossil record, Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago IL, p 120–158Google Scholar
  172. Partain BY, Hopley D (1989) Morphology and development of the Cape Tribulation fringing reefs, GretBarrier Reef, Australia. Tech Mem 21, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  173. Pauly D (1995) Anecdotes and the shifting baseline syndrome of fisheries. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10:430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Pearse VB, Muscatine L (1971) Role of symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) in coral calcification. Biol. Bull. 141:350–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Pekar SF (2008) Climate change: when did the icehouse cometh? Nature 455:602–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Peltier WR (1991) The ICE-3G model of late Pleistocene deglaciation: construction, verification and applications. In: Sabadini R, Lambeck K, Boschi E (eds) Glacial isostacy, sea-level and Mmantle reology. NATO ASI Series C, 334, Kluwer, Dordrecht, p 95–119Google Scholar
  177. Peltier WR (1998) Postglacial variations in the level of the sea : implications for climate dynamics and solid-Earth geophysics. Rev of Geophys 36:603–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Peltier WR, Fairbanks RW (2006) Global glacial ice volume and last glacial maximum duration from an extended Barbados sea level record. Quat Sci Rev 25:3322–3337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Perry CT (1998) Macroborers within coral framework at Discovery Bay, north Jamaica: species distribution and abundance, and effects on coral preservation. Coral Reefs 17:277–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Perry CT, Edinger EN, Kench PS, Mumby PJ, Murphy G, Steneck RS, Smithers SG. (2012) Estimating rates of biologically driven coral reef framework production and erosion: a new census-based carbonate budget methodology and applications to the reefs of Bonaire. Coral Reefs 31:853–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Perry CT, Murphy GN, Kench PS, Smithers SG, Edinger EN, Steneck RS, Mumby PJ (2013) Caribbean-wide decline in carbonate production threatens coral reef growth. Nature Communications. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms2409 (Open Access)
  182. Perry CT, Spencer T, Kench PS (2008) Carbonate budgets and reef production states: a geomorphic perspective on the ecological phase-shift concept. Coral Reefs 27:853–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Prothero DR, Schwabb F (1977) Sedimentary geology. WH Freeman & Co. New York, 527 pGoogle Scholar
  184. Rahmstorf S (2007) A Semi-Empirical Approach to Projecting Future Sea-Level Rise. Science 315:368–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Rohling EJ, Grant K, Bolshaw M, Riberts AP, Sidall M, Hambelen C, Kuera M (2009) Antarctic temperature and global sea level closely coupled over the past five glacial cycles. Nat Geosci 2:500–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Sadd JL (1984) Sediment transport and CaCO3 budget on a fringing reef, Cane Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands: Bull Mar Sci 35:221–238Google Scholar
  187. Santantonio M, Scrocca D, Lipparini L (2012) The Ombrina-Rospo Playeau (Apulian platform): evolution of a carbonate platform and its margins during the Jurassic and Cretaceous. Mar Pet Geol 42:4–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Schlager W (1981) The paradox of drowned reefs and carbonate platforms. Geological Society of America Bulletin 92:197–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Schumacher H, Kiene w, Dullo W-C (1995) Factors controlling Holocene reef growth: an interdisciplinary approach. Facies 32:145–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Scoffin TP, Stearn CW, Boucher D, Frydl P, Hawkins CM, Hunter IG, MacGeachy JK (1980) Calcium carbonate budget of a fringing reef on the west coast of Barbados: part II, erosion, sediments and internal structure. Bulletin of Marine Science 30:47–508Google Scholar
  191. Shen C-C, Siringan FP, Lin K, Dai C-F, Gong S-Y, (2010) Sea-level rise and coral-reef development of northwestern Luzon since 9,9 ka. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology. 292:465–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Sherman C, Nemeth M, Ruíz H, Bejarano I, Appeldoorn R, Pagán F, Schärer M, Weil E (2010) Geomorphology and benthic cover of mesophotic coral ecosystems of the upper insular slope of southwest Puerto Rico. Coral Reefs 29:347–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Shinn, E. A., 1995, Marine versus meteoric cementation: the three stages of discovery, Proc. 1st SEPM Congress on Sedimentary Geology, St. Petersburg Beach, FL 1: 113Google Scholar
  194. Shinn EA, Hudson JH, Halley RB, Lidz B, Robbin DM, Macintyre IG (1982) Geology and sediment accumulation rates at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. In: Rutzler K, Macintyre IG (Eds) The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 12, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, 539 pGoogle Scholar
  195. Shinn EA, Hudson JH, Halley RB, Lidz B (1977) Topographic control and accumulation rate of some Holocene coral reefs, South Florida and Dry Tortugas, Proc. 3rd Intl Coral Reef Symp. 2: 1–7Google Scholar
  196. Shinn EA, Hudson JH, Robbin DM, Lidz B (1981) Spurs and grooves revisited - construction versus erosion, Looe Key Reef, Florida. Proc. 4th Intl Coral Reef Symp. 1:475–483Google Scholar
  197. Sloss CR, Murray-Wallace CV, Jones BG (2007) Holocene sea-level change on the southeast coast of Australia: a review. The Holocene 17:999–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Smith SV, Edmonds J, Hartin CA, Mundra A, Calvin K (2015) Near-term acceleration in the rate of temperature change. Nature Climate Change, doi: 10.1038/nclimate2552 Google Scholar
  199. Smith SV, Kinsey DW (1976) Calcium Carbonate Production, Coral Reef Growth, and Sea Level Change. Science 194:937–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Stanley GD, Fagerstrom JA (1988) Ancient reef ecosystems: and introduction to the volume. Palaios 3:110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Stanley SM, Hardie LA (1998) Secular oscillations in the carbonate mineralogy of reef-building and sediment-producing organisms driven by tectonically forced shifts in seawater chemistry. Paleogr Paleoclim Peleoecol 144:3–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Stearn CW, Scoffin TP, Martindale W (1977) Calcium carbonate budget of a fringing reef on the west coast of Barbados - zonation and productivity. Bulletin of Marine Science 27:479–510Google Scholar
  203. Storlazzi C D, Elias E, Field M E, Presto M K (2011) Numerical modelling of the impact of sea-level rise on fringing coral reef hydrodynamics and sediment transport. Coral Reefs 30:83–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Storlazzi CD, Ogston AS, Bothner MH, Field ME, Presto MK (2004) Wave- and tidally-driven flow and sediment flux across a fringing coral reef: south-central Molokai, Hawaii. Cont Shelf Res 24:1397–1419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Taylor FW, Mann P, Valastro S, Burke K (1985) Stratigraphy and radiocarbon chronology of a subaerially exposed Holocene coral reef, Dominican Republic. J of Geology 93: 311–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Thom, B.G. and Chappell, J. 1975: Holocene sea-levels relative to Australia. Search 6:90–9Google Scholar
  207. Thomas AL, Henderson GM, Deschamps P, Yokoyama Y, Mason AJ, Bard E, Hamelin B, Durand N, Camoin G (2009) Penultemate deglacial sea-level timing from uranium/Thorium dating of Tahitian corals. Science 324:1186–1189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Tomascik T, Surarsono T, Mah A (1993) Case histories: a historical perspective of the natural and anthropogenic impacts in the Indonesian archipelago with a focus on the Kepulauan Seribu, Java Sea. In: Ginsburg RN (ed.) Global aspects of coral reefs. University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Miami FL, J26–J32Google Scholar
  209. Toomey M, Ashton AD, Perron JT (2013) Profiles of ocean island coral reefs controlled by sea-level history and carbonate accumulation rates. Geology 41:731–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Toscano MA, Macintyre IG (2003) Corrected western Atlantic sea-level curve for the last 11,000 years based on calibrated C14 dates from Acropora palmata framework and intertidal mangrove peat. Coral Reefs 22:257–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Toth LT, van Woesik R, Murdoch TJT, Smith SR, Ogden JC, Precht WF, Aronson RB ((2014) Do no-take reserves benefit Florida’s corals? 14 years of change and stasis in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Coral Reefs 33:565–577Google Scholar
  212. Twiggs EJ, Collins LB (2010) Development and demise of a fringing coral reef during Holocene environmental change, eastern Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Marine Geology. 275:20–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Vail PR, Mitchum RM Jr, Thompson S III (1977) Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea level, part four: global cycles of relative changes of sea level. Amer Assn Petr Geol Mem 26: 83–98Google Scholar
  214. van Woesik R, Golbuu Y, Roff G (2015) Keep up or drown: adjustment of western Pacific coral reefs to sea-level rise in the 21st century. Royal Society Open Science. doi:  10.1098/rsos.150181 Google Scholar
  215. Vermeer M, Ramstorf S (2009) Global sea level linked to global temperature. PNAS 106:21527-21532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Vogel K, Gektidis M, Golubic S, Kiene W, Radtke G (2000) Experimental studies on microbial bioerosion at Lee Stocking Iskand, Bahamas and One Tree Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia: implications for paleoecological reconstructions. Lethaia 33:190–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Ware H (2005) Demography, migration and conflict in the Pacific. Journal of Peace Research 42:435–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Webb AP, Kench PS (2010) The dynamic response of reef islands to sea-level rise: evidence from multi-decadal analysis of island change in the central Pacific. Global and Planetary Change 72:2354–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Webster JM, Clague DA, Riker-Coleman K, Gallup C, Braga JC, Potts D, Moore JG, Winterer EL, Paull CK (2004), Drowning of the 150 m reef off Hawaii: A casualty of global meltwater pulse 1A?, Geology 32:249–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Webster JM, Davies PJ (2003) Coral variation in two deep drill cores: significance for the Pleistocene development of the Great Barrier Reef. Sed Geol 159:61–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Webster PJ, Holland GJ, Curry JA, Chang HR (2005) Changes in Tropical Cyclone Number, Duration, and Intensity in a Warming Environment. Science 309:1844–1846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Weil E, Rogers CR (2011) Coral reef diseases in the Atlantic-Caribbean. In: Dubinsky Z, Strambler N (ed.) Coral reefs: an ecosystem in transition. Springer, p 465–492Google Scholar
  223. Weinstein DK, Klaus JS, Smith TB (2014) Mesophotic bioerosion: structural impact and changes with depth on U.S. Virgin Island deep reefs. Geomorphology 222:14–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Whitcher E (2011) Macrobioerosion rates of in-situ coral colonies: St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. 24th Keck Geology Symposium. p 219–225Google Scholar
  225. Wilkinson C (2000) Status of the Coral Reefs of the World: 2000. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville Australia, 363 pGoogle Scholar
  226. Wilkinson C (2008) Status of the Coral Reefs of the World: 2008. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre, Townsville, Australia 296pGoogle Scholar
  227. Williams EH, Bartels PJ, Bunkley-Williams L (1999) Predicted disappearance of coral-reef ramparts: a direct result of major ecological disturbances. Glob Change Biol. 5:839–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Wilson MEJ, Bosence DWJ, Libong A (2000) Tertiary syntectonic carbonate platform development in Indonesia. Sedimentology 47:395–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Woodroffe C, Webster JM (2014) Coral reefs and sea-level change. Marine Geologydoi.org/  10.1016/j.margeo.2013.12.006
  230. Yentsch CS, Yentsch CM, Cullen JJ, Lapointe P, Phinney DA, Yentsch SW (2002) Sunlight and water transparency: cornerstones in coral research. J. Exp Mar Biol Ecol 268: 171–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Zeebe EE, Wolf-Gladrow DA (2011) CO2 in seawater equilibrium, kinetics and isotopes. Elsevier Oceanogr Ser No 65, Elsevier B.V., 346 pGoogle Scholar
  232. Zinke J, Reijmer J, Thomassin B, Dullo W-C, Grootes, PM, Erlenkeuser H (2003) Postglacial flooding history of Mayotte lagoon (Comoro archipelago, southwest Indian Ocean). Marine Geology 194: 181–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyOberlin CollegeOberlinUSA
  2. 2.Ocean Circulation und Climate DynamicsHelmholtz-Zentrum für OzeanforschungKielGermany

Personalised recommendations