Neurourology pp 563-568 | Cite as

Disc Disease

  • Casey G. Kowalik
  • Joshua A. Cohn
  • Roger R. DmochowskiEmail author


Disc disease encompasses a variety of vertebral disorders including disc degeneration and herniation. Up to 80% of people will experience back pain over their lifetime and this can commonly be associated with degeneration of the intervertebral disc [1]. Degenerative disc disease is the clinical syndrome described by manifestations thought to be related to disc degeneration, characterized broadly by fissures, degeneration, and herniation. Disc herniation is the displacement of disc material, such as nucleus pulposus, beyond the disc edge [2]. Disc herniation occurs most commonly during the third and fourth decades of life with the most common levels of disc herniation being L4–L5 and L5–S1 [3]. Although lumbar disc herniation is the most common, cervical and thoracic discs can also herniate. The level and degree of disc herniation will affect patient symptoms.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Casey G. Kowalik
    • 1
  • Joshua A. Cohn
    • 2
  • Roger R. Dmochowski
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Urologic SurgeryVanderbilt University Medical CenterNashvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of UrologyEinstein Healthcare NetworkPhiladelphiaUSA

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