Neurourology pp 499-510 | Cite as

Parkinson’s Disease

  • Ryuji SakakibaraEmail author


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common movement disorder associated with the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. In addition to the movement disorder, patients with PD often show non-motor disorders. The non-motor problems of PD include neuropsychiatric disorders, sleep disorders, sensory symptoms, and autonomic disorders [1]. Bladder dysfunction is one of the most common autonomic disorders [2, 3]. Studies have shown that the bladder dysfunction has great significance in relation to quality-of-life measures, early institutionalization, and health economics [4, 5]. It is particularly important to note that, unlike motor disorder, bladder dysfunction is sometimes non-responsive to levodopa, suggesting that they occur through a complex patho-physiology [6]. This is because pathology of PD is not confined to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, and involves other locations in the brain and other neurotransmitter systems than the dopaminergic system. For this reason, add-on therapy is required to maximize patients’ quality of life. We here review bladder function and its management of patients with PD, with an understanding of brain-bladder relationship.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neurology, Internal Medicine, Sakura Medical CenterToho UniversitySakuraJapan

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