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General Summary

  • Amos J. Peaslee
Chapter

Abstract

The two and a half billion human beings of the world are now organized into approximately eighty-nine political entities which claim, and are accorded internationally for most purposes, sovereign national status.

Keywords

Saudi Arabia Dominican Republic Chief Executive High Court Lower House 
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References

  1. 1.
    The seal or coat of arms which appears over this heading is a form which was designed by the late Joseph P. Sims as a suggestion for the United Nations seal. This form was used first in the book “United Nations Government” by Amos J. Peaslee, published by G. P. Putnams Sons in 1945.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    There are seventy six members of the United Nations at the date of our going to press.Google Scholar
  3. 1.
    See Table I, and “International Governmental Organizations”, Peaslee, Nijhoff, the Hague, and Justice House, New York, 1956, and the list contained in the Yearbook of International Organizations, Brussels, and that published yearly by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  4. 2.
    Afghanistan, Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Burma,Cambodia, Ceylon, Finland, Hungary, Iceland, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Laos, Libya, Nepal, Pakistan, Portugal, Rumania, Spain, Sweden, Thailand and Yemen.Google Scholar
  5. 3.
    Democratic Republic of Viet Nam, Japan, Korea, the Mongol People’s Republic. People’s Democratic Republic of Korea, and Viet Nam.Google Scholar
  6. 4.
    See Art. 93 of the Charter of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  7. 5.
    See Yearbook of the Court, 1951–52, pp. 36–43.Google Scholar
  8. 6.
  9. 7.
  10. 1.
    See Table II. In a few instances, there are two or more coordinate documents, but for practical purposes they constitute a “written constitution”.Google Scholar
  11. 2.
    Egypt, Pakistan.Google Scholar
  12. 3.
    Cuba, Indonesia, Nepal.Google Scholar
  13. 4.
    See Table II.Google Scholar
  14. 5.
    See Table II, and texts of respective constitutions.Google Scholar
  15. 1.
    The Statute of Westminster refers to Australia as a “Commonwealth,” and to Canada and New Zealand as “dominions.” India is described as a “republic” in the Declaration of the London Conference of Prime Ministers of April 27, 1949.Google Scholar
  16. 1.
    In that case, Marbury v. Madison., 1 Cranch 137, decided in 1803, the Congress of the United States (Legislative Department) had passed a law purporting to confer upon the Courts (Judicial Department) authority to issue certain peremptory orders against the Secretary of State (Executive Department). The Supreme Court of the United States held that the limits of power of the respective Departments of Government were defined by the Constitution and could not be changed by an Act of the Legislative Department; hence that the Act was void as repugnant to the Constitution. The Court, in its opinion, said: “Certainly all those who have framed written constitutions contemplate them as forming the fundamental and paramount law of the nation, and, consequently, the theory of every such government must be, that an act of the legislature, repugnant to the constitution, is void. This theory is essentially attached to a written constitution, and, is consequently, to be considered, by this court, as one of the fundamental principles of our society. It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is. Those who apply the rule to particular cases, must of necessity expound and interpret that rule. If two laws conflict with each other, the courts must decide on the operation of each.”Google Scholar
  17. 2.
    See Table VII, and consider particularly Australia, Canada, Greece, India, Jordan, New Zealand, Pakistan, Paraguay, Sweden and Syria.Google Scholar
  18. 3.
    Albania, Bulgaria, Byelorussia, Czechoslovakia, Ecuador, Portugal, and the Ukrainian SSR. See also Finland.Google Scholar
  19. 4.
    Several constitutions of nations having a republican or democratic form of government as distinguished from the monarchical form, refer to the source of sovereignty as lying in the “nation”. On the basis of the context of their constitutions or their history, it seems proper to classify these nations in the group recognizing sovereignty in the “people.”Google Scholar
  20. 1.
    See Table III for references to Articles in individual constitutions.Google Scholar
  21. 2.
  22. 1.
    British Nationality Act, effective January 1, 1949.Google Scholar
  23. 2.
    For a tabulation of these see Table IV. See also Yearbook on Human Rights, United Nations.Google Scholar
  24. 3.
    See Table IV.Google Scholar
  25. 4.
    Since the first edition of this compilation four nations which previously had bicameral legislative bodies have adopted unicameral ones (Denmark, Egypt, New Zealand and Thailand); of the new nations, three (Cambodia, Laos and Libya) have adopted what may be called bicameral legislatures and three have adopted unicameral legislatures (Indonesia, Israel and Viet Nam).Google Scholar
  26. 1.
    Some differences arise merely from the selection of English names by translators.Google Scholar
  27. 1.
    The countries include the following: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Burma, Cambodia, Canada, Ceylon, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Egypt, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Laos, Lebanon, Libya, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Sweden, Syria, Union of South Africa, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia. See Table V for references to Articles in individual Constitutions.Google Scholar
  28. 2.
    All ex-presidents are members ex officio.Google Scholar
  29. 3.
    Largely hereditary.Google Scholar
  30. 1.
    If Australia, Canada, Ceylon, New Zealand and the Union of South Africa are eliminated this percentage is reduced to about 8 percent.Google Scholar
  31. 1.
    In Canada, Art. 11, Australia Sec. 61.Google Scholar
  32. 2.
    See Table VI for references to individual Constitutions.Google Scholar
  33. 3.
    See Table VI and individual Constitutions.Google Scholar
  34. 4.
    Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, Korea, Liberia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Switzerland, United States of America, Uruguay and Venezuela.Google Scholar
  35. 5.
    These include Afghanistan, Albania, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Burma, Byelorussian SSR, Cambodia, Canada, Ceylon, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Laos, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Mongolian People’s Republic, Nepal, Netherlands, Norway, New Zealand, Pakistan, Poland, Rumania, Sweden, Syria, Thailand, Turkey, Ukrainian SSR, Union of South Africa, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom and Yugoslavia.Google Scholar
  36. 1.
    Such countries might include Egypt, Indonesia, Monaco, Spain, Vatican City and Viet Nam.Google Scholar
  37. 2.
    See Table VI, and individual Constitutions.Google Scholar
  38. 3.
    See Table VII, and individual constitutions.Google Scholar
  39. 4.
    Ethiopia, France (but see Const. Art. 83, which does provide for a “Superior Council of the Judiciary”), Iceland, Iraq, Jordan, Spain, Syria, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  40. 5.
    See, for example, Afghanistan, Art. 95; Denmark, Art. 66; Iraq, Art. 81; Lebanon, Art. 80; Liechtenstein, Art. 104; Norwav, Art. 86; United States of America, Art 1., Sec. 6.Google Scholar
  41. 6.
    Argentina, Art. 95; Australia, Art. 73; Brazil, Art. 101; Burma, Art. 135; Mexico, Art. 105; Switzerland, Art. 110; United States of America, Art. Ill, Sec. 2; Venezuela, Art. 133.Google Scholar
  42. 1.
    See Table VIII, and individual constitutions.Google Scholar
  43. 2.
    See Table VII, and individual constitutions.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1956

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amos J. Peaslee

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