The term ‘Norman’ has been used to indicate the miscellaneous host of about 60.000 men 1) which William of Normandy led to the conquest of England, just as the terms Francus and Francigena in the 11th century documents seem to refer indifferently to Bretons, Normans, Picards and Flemings who followed William to England and settled there 2). It appears that the promises of money and booty which the Norman Duke had held out to all those who should join him in the enterprise, had allured numbers of adventurers, high and low, from all the surrounding countries3). King Henry of Germany, the son of the Emperor Henry, though not actually helping William, did not hinder his subjects from joining the Duke’s army4), and the Count of Flanders, without personally joining the army, lent his son-in-law what assistance lay in his power to promote its success 5).


Commercial Relation Irish Traveller Foreign Merchant English Merchant 11th Century Document 
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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1903

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  • J. F. Bense

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