Cultural Methods and Soil Nutrient Status in Low and High Input Agricultural Systems, as They Affect Rhizoctonia Species

  • Ariena H. C. Van Bruggen
  • Niklaus J. Grünwald
  • Mark Bolda


For the purpose of this chapter, low-input crops are defined as crops receiving limited or no synthetic external inputs in the form of pesticides and fertilizers. However, they do receive regular inputs of organic amendments in the form of cover crops, compost or manure to maintain soil fertility, high levels of activity by the soil microflora and fauna, and a good soil structure. Low-input crops are typically grown in organic or biological and integrated farming systems (National Research Council, 1989). Organic or biological farming systems are defined as systems where synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are not used. Instead, biological and cultural methods of pest and disease control are emphasized (National Research Council, 1989). Integrated farming systems may apply pesticides and fertilizers but at a reduced rate compared to conventional farming systems. High-input crops are considered to be crops that receive pesticides and fertilizers as currently used in conventional farming systems. Organic amendments are usually not applied (except in areas with excess manure). In addition to these differences in organic and synthetic inputs, organic and integrated farming systems often differ from conventional farming systems in their tillage operations. On many organic and integrated farms, minimum- tillage practices are utilized, i.e., soil cultivation to a depth of about 15 cm instead of 30 cm or more on conventional farms (El Titi and Landes, 1990). On the other hand, no-till practices are more commonly used on currnet conventional farms because of the need for some tillage for weed control on organic farms. Finally, crop rotations are often longer and spatial diversity greater in organic and integrated farming systems than in conventional farming systems (van Bruggen, 1995).


Farming System Organic Amendment Soil Fauna Rhizoctonia Solani Sheath Blight 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Altman J and Rovira AD (1989) Herbicide-pathogen interactions in soil-borne root diseases. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 11: 166–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amrhein N, Deus B, Gehrke P, Hollander H, Schab J, Schultz A and Steinrücken HC (1981) Interference of glyphosate with the shikimate pathway. Proc. Plant Growth Regul. Soc. Am. 8: 99–106.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson NA (1982) The genetics and pathology of Rhizoctonia solani. Ann. Rev. Phytopathol. 20: 329–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baby UI and Manibhushanrao K (1993) Control of rice sheath blight through the integration of fungal antagonists and organic amendments. Trop. Agric. 70:240–244.Google Scholar
  5. Baker R and Martinson CA (1970) Epidemiology of diseases caused by Rhizoctonia solani. In: Parmeter JR (ed.). Rhizoctonia solani, Biology and Pathology (pp 172–188 ) University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  6. Barnes GL, Russell CC and Foster WD (1981) Aphelenchus avenae, a potential biological control agent for root rot fungi. Plant Dis. 65: 423–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Belmar SB, Jones RK and Starr JL (1987) Influence of crop rotation on inoculum density of Rhizoctonia solani and sheath blight incidence in rice. Phytopathology 77: 1138–1143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bochow H, Hentschel KD and Schmidt HH (1970) The influence of organic substances on the parasitic acitivity of Rhizoctonia solani in the soil. Arch. Pflanzenschutz 6: 125–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bollen GJ (1993) Mechanisms involved in non-target effects of pesticides on the incidence of soil-borne pathogens. In: Altman J (ed.). Pesticide interactions in crop production: beneficial and deleterious effects. CRC Press, Florida.Google Scholar
  10. Brennan RF (1991) Effect of nitrogen and residual copper on the occurrence of rhizoctonia bare patch in wheat grown near Esperance, Western Australia. Austr. J. Exp. Agric. 31: 259–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Butler EE (1993) Rhizoctonia solani. In: Lyda SD and Kenerley CM (eds.). Biology of Sclerotial-forming Fungi. (pp 87–112 ) Texas AandM University, College Station, Texas.Google Scholar
  12. Chung YR, Hoitink HAJ, Dick WA and Herr LJ (1988a) Effects of organic matter decomposition level and cellulose amendment on the inoculum potential of Rhizoctonia solani in hardwood bark media. Phytopathology 78: 836–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chung YR, Hoitink HAJ and Lipps PE (1988b) Interactions between organic-matter decomposition level and soilborne disease severity. Agric. Ecosyst. Environm. 24: 183–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cook RJ (1994) Problems and progress in the biological control of wheat take-all. Plant Pathol. 43: 429–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cook RJ and Haglund WA (1991) Wheat yield depression associated with conservation tillage caused by root pathogens in the soil not phytotoxins from the straw. Soil Biol. Biochem. 23: 1125–1132.Google Scholar
  16. Cook RJ and Veseth RJ (1991) Wheat Health Management. APS Press: St. Paul, Minnesota.Google Scholar
  17. Curl EA, Lartey R and Petersen CM (1988) Interactions between root pathogens and soil microarthropods. Agric. Ecosyst. and Environ. 24: 249–261.Google Scholar
  18. Daamen RA, Wijnands FG and van der Vliet G (1989) Epidemics of diseases and pests of winter wheat at different levels of agrochemical input. A study on the possibilities for designing an integrated cropping system. J. Phytopathology 125: 305–319.Google Scholar
  19. De Swardt GJ and Pauer GDC (1978) The Effect of plant material on the saprophytic and parasitic activity of Rhizoctonia solani. Phytophylactica 10: 103–106.Google Scholar
  20. Dijst G (1990) Effect of volatile and unstable exudates from underground potato plant parts on sclerotium formation by Rhizoctonia solani AG 3 before and after haulm destruction. Netherl. J. Plant Pathol. 96: 155–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Doran JW, Fraser DG, Culik MN and Liebhardt WC (1987) Influence of alternative and conventional agricultural management on soil microbial processes and nitrogen availability. American Journal of Altern. Agric. 2: 99–106.Google Scholar
  22. Drinkwater LE, Letourneau DK, Workneh F, van Bruggen AHC and Sherman C (1995) Fundamental differences between conventional and organic tomato agroecosystems in California. Ecol. Applic. 5: 1098–1112.Google Scholar
  23. El-Abyad MS and Abu-Taleb AM (1991) Growth activities of the sugarbeet pathogens Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc., Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Sclerotium rolfsü Sacc. under pymarin stress. Zentralbl. Mikrobiol. 146: 419–424.Google Scholar
  24. El Titi A and Ipach U (1989) Soil fauna in sustainable agriculture: Results of an integrated farming system at Lautenbach, F.R.G. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 27: 561–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. El Titi A and Landes H (1990) Integrated Farming System of Lautenbach: A practical contribution toward sustainable agriculture in Europe. In: Edwards CA Lal R Madden P Miller RH and House G (eds.). Sustainable Agricultural Systems. (pp 265–286 ) Soil and Water Conserv. Soc., Ankeny, Iowa.Google Scholar
  26. El Titi A and Richter J (1987) Integrierter Pflanzenschutz im Ackerbau: Das Lautenbach Projekt. ID. Schaedlinge and Krankheiten 1979–1983. Z. Planzenkrank. and Planzenschutz 94: 1–13.Google Scholar
  27. Engelhard AW (1989) Soilbome Plant Pathogens: management of diseases with macro-and microelements. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota.Google Scholar
  28. Foissner W (1992) Comparative studies on the soil life in ecofarmed and conventionally farmed fields and grasslands of Austria. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 40: 207–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Galindo JJ, Abawi GS, Thurston HD and G3lvez G (1983a) Effect of mulching on web blight of beans in Costa Rica. Phytopathology 73: 610–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Galindo JJ, Abawi GS, Thurston HD and Gdlvez G (1983b) Source of inoculum and development of bean web blight in Costa Rica. Plant Dis. 67: 1016–1021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Herr LI (1993) Host sources, virulence and overwinter survival of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis groups isolated from field lettuce with bottom rot symptoms. Crop Prot. 12: 521–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hide GA and Read J (1991) Effects of rotation length, fungicide treatment of seed tubers and nematicide on diseases and the quality of potato tubers. Ann. Appl. Biol. 119: 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hofman TW (1988) Effects of granular nematicides on the infection of potatoes by Rhizoctonia solani. PhD Thesis, Agric. Univ. Wageningen, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  34. Huber DM (1978) Disturbed mineral nutrition. In: Horsfall JG and Cowling EB (eds.). Plant Disease–An Advanced Treatise. How Plants Suffer from Disease Vol. III (pp 163–181 ) Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Huber DM (1980) The role of mineral nutrition in defense. In: Horsfall JG Cowling EB (eds.). Plant Dis.–An Advanced Treatise. How Plants Defend Themselves Vol. V. (pp 381–406 ) Academic Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Huiskamp T and Lamers JG (1992) Effects of cropping frequency on peas, Vicia faba, Phaseolus vulgaris, forage maize, fibre flax and onions. Verslag Proefstation Akkerb. Groentet. Vollegrond 143 (82 pp).Google Scholar
  37. Inbar Y, Boehm MJ and Hoitink HA (1991) Hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate in sphagnum peat container media for predicting suppressiveness to damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum. Soil Biol. Biochem. 23: 479–483.Google Scholar
  38. Jager G and Velvis H (1980) Onderzoek naar het voorkomen van Rhizoctonia-werende aardappel-percelen in noord-Nederland. Inst. Bodem vruchtbaarheid Rep. 1–80: 66 pp.Google Scholar
  39. Johal GS and Rabe JE (1988) Glyphosate, hypersensitivity and phytoalexin accumulation in the incompatible bean anthracnose host-parasite interaction. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 32: 267–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jones RK and Belmar SB (1989) Characterization and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia spp. isolated from rice, soybean, and other crops grown in rotation with rice in Texas. Plant Dis. 73: 1004–1010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kataria HR and Gisi U (1990) Interactions of fungicide-herbicide combinations against plant pathogens and weeds. Crop Prot. 9: 403–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kataria HR, Singh H and Gisi U (1989) Interactions of fungicide-insecticide combinations against Rhizoctonia solani in vitro and in soil. Crop Prot. 8: 399–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kundu PK and Nandi B (1985) Control of Rhizoctonia disease of cauliflower by competitive inhibition of the pathogen using organic amendments in soil. Plant and Soil 83: 357–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lartey RT, Curl EA, Peterson CM and Williams JC (1994) Interactions of mycophagous collembola and biological control fungi in the suppression of Rhizoctonia solani. Soil Biol. Biochem. 26: 81–88.Google Scholar
  45. Leach SS, Porter GA, Rourke RV and Clapham WM (1993) Effects of moldboard plowing, chisel plowing and rotation crops on the rhizoctonia disease of white potato. Amer. Potato J. 70: 329–377.Google Scholar
  46. Lévesque CA and Rahe JE (1992) Herbicide interactions with fungal root pathogens, with special reference to glyphosate. Anna. Rev. Phytopathol. 30: 579–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lewis JA, Lumsden RD, Papavizas GC and Kantzes JG (1983) Integrated control of snap bean diseases caused by Pythium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani. Plant Dis. 67: 1241–1244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lewis JA and Papavizas GC (1980) Integrated control of Rhizoctonia fruit rot of cucumber. Phytopathology 70: 85–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lumsden RD, Lewis JA and Millner PD (1983) Effect of composted sewage sludge on several soilborne pathogens and diseases. Phytopathology 73: 1543–1548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. MacNish GC (1984) The use of undisturbed soil cores to study methods of controlling rhizoctonia patch of cereals. Plant Pathol. 33: 355–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. MacNish GC (1985) Methods of reducing rhizoctonia patch of cereals in Western Australia. Plant Pathol. 34: 175–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mulder A, Turkesteen LI and Bouman A (1992) Perspectives of green-crop-harvesting to control soil-borne and storage diseases of seed potatoes. Nether!. J. Plant Pathol. 98: 103–114.Google Scholar
  53. National Research Council (1989) Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  54. Nitta T (1991) Diversity of root fungal floras: Its implications for soil-borne diseases and crop growth. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly 25: 6–11.Google Scholar
  55. Ogoshi A (1987) Ecology and pathogenicity of anastomosis and intraspecific groups of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 25: 125–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Papavizas GC (1970) Colonization and growth of Rhizoctonia solani in soil. In: Parmeter JR Jr (ed.). Rhizoctonia solani, Biology and Pathology. (pp 108–122 ) University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
  57. Papavizas GC, Adams PB, Lumsden RD, Lewis JA, Dow RL, Ayers WA and Kantzes JA (1975) Ecology and epidemiology of Rhizoctonia solani in field soil. Phytopathology 65: 871–877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Parmeter JR Jr (ed.) (1970) Rhizoctonia solani, Biology and Pathology. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA 255 pp.Google Scholar
  59. Peacock CH and Daniel PF (1992) A comparison of turfgrass response to biologically amended fertilizers. HortScience 27: 883–884.Google Scholar
  60. Pion HP and Hindorf H (1986) The implication of Plant Dis. and pests during the conversion from conventional to biological agriculture. In: Vogtmann H Boehncke E and Fricke I (eds.) The Importance of Biological Agriculture in a World of Diminishing Resources (pp 421–435 ) Verlagsgruppe Witzenhausen, Germany, 1986.Google Scholar
  61. Pumphrey FV, Wilkins DE, Hane DC and Smiley RW (1987) Influence of tillage and nitrogen fertilizer on rhizoctonia root rot (bare patch) of winter wheat. Plant Dis. 71: 125–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rickerl DH, Curl EA and Touchton JT (1989) ‘Village and rotation effects on Collembola populations and Rhizoctonia infestation. Soil and tillage Res. 15: 41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rickert DH, Curl EA, Touchton JT and Gordon WB (1992) Crop mulch effects on Rhizoctonia soil infestation and disease severity in conservation-tilled cotton. Soil Biol. Biochem. 24: 553–557.Google Scholar
  64. Rodriguez-Kabana R and Curl EA (1980) Nontarget effects of pesticides on soilborne pathogens and disease. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 18: 311–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Roget DK (1995) Decline in root rot in wheat caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8 in a tillage and rotation trial at Avon, South Australia. Abstract No. P-7–6, International Symposium on Rhizoctonia. Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  66. Roget DK, Venn NR and Rovira AD (1987) Reduction of rhizoctonia root rot of direct-drilled wheat by short-term chemical fallow. Austral. J. Experim. Agric. 27: 425–430.Google Scholar
  67. Rovira AD (1986) Influence of crop rotation and tillage on Rhizoctonia bare patch of wheat. Phytopathology 76: 669–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rovira AD and McDonald HJ (1986) Effects of the herbicide chlorsulfuron on Rhizoctonia bare patch and take-all of barley and wheat. Plant Dis. 70: 879–882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ruppel EG (1985) Susceptibility of rotation crops to a root rot isolate of Rhizoctonia solani from sugar beet and survival of the pathogen in crop residues. Plant Dis. 69: 871–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ruppel EG (1991) Survival of Rhizoctonia solani in fallow field soil and buried sugarbeet roots at three depths. J. Sugar Beet Res. 28: 141–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rush CM and Winter SR (1990) Influence of previous crops on Rhizoctonia root and crown rot of sugar beet. Plant Dis. 74: 421–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Schueller C, Biala J, Bruns C, Gottschall R, Ahlers S and Vogtmann H (1989) Suppression of root rot on peas, beans and beetroots caused by Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani through the amendment of growing media with composted organic household waste. J. Phytopathol. 127: 227–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Scow KM, Somasco O, Gunapala N, Lau S, Venette R, Ferris H, Miller R and Sherman C (1994) Transition from conventional to low-input agriculture changes soil fertility and biology. Calif. Agric. 48: 20–26.Google Scholar
  74. Sivapalan A, Morgan WC and Franz PR (1993) Monitoring populations of soil microorganisms during a conversion from a conventional to an organic system of vegetable growing. Biol. Agric. Hortic. 10: 927.Google Scholar
  75. Smiley RW, Ogg AG Jr. and Cook RJ (1992) Influence of glyphosate on rhizocotnia root rot, growth, and yield of barley. Plant Dis. 76: 937–942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Specht LP and Leach SS (1987) Effects of crop rotation on Rhizoctonia disease of white potato. Plant Dis. 71: 433–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Srihuttagum M and Sivasithamparam K (1991) The influence of fertilizers on root rot of field peas caused by Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium vexans and Rhizoctonia solari inoculated singly or in combination. Plant and Soil 132: 21–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Stephens PM, Davoren CW, Doube BM, Ryder MH, Benger AM and Neate SM (1993) Reduced severity of Rhizoctonia solani disease on wheat seedlings associated with the presence of the earthworm Aporrectodea trapezoides (Lumbricidae). Soil Biol. Biochem. 25: 1477–1484.Google Scholar
  79. Sumner DR and Bell DK (1986) Influence of crop rotation on severity of crown and brace root rot caused in corn by Rhizoctonia solar!. Phytopathology 76: 248–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Taya RS, Tripathi NN and Panwar MS (1988) Influence of soil type, soil moisture and fertilizers on the severity of chickpea dry root-rot caused by Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Butler. Indian J. Mycol. PI. Pathol. 18: 133–136.Google Scholar
  81. Temple SR, Somasco OA, Kirk M and Friedman D (1994) Conventional, low-input and organic farming systems compared. Calif. Agric. 48: 14–19.Google Scholar
  82. Tu JC and Tan CS (1991) Effect of soil compaction on growth, yield and root rots of white beans in clay loam and sandy loam soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 23: 233–238.Google Scholar
  83. Van Bruggen AHC (1995) Plant Disease severity in high-input compared to reduced-input and organic farming systems. Plant Dis. 79: 976–984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Van der Hoeven EP and Bollen GJ (1980) Effect of benomyl on soil fungi associated with rye, 1. Effect on the incidence of sharp eyespot caused by Rhizoctonia cerealis. Neth. J. Pl. Path. 86: 163–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vilgalys R and Cubeta MA (1994) Molecular systematics and population biology of Rhizoctonia. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 32: 135–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Voland RP and Epstein AH (1994) Development of suppressiveness to diseases caused by Rhizoctonia solani in soil amended with composted and noncomposted manure. Plant Dis. 78: 461–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Walia GS, Sunder S and Grover RK (1992) Influence of nutrients on pathogenic behaviour of Rhizoctonia solani on cowpea. Indian J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol. 22: 170–177.Google Scholar
  88. Wall RE (1984) Effects of recently incorporated organic amendments on damping-off of conifer seedlings. Plant Dis. 68: 59–60.Google Scholar
  89. Weller DM, Cook RJ, MaeNish G, Bassett EN, Powelson RL, and Petersen RR (1986) Rhizoctonia root rot of small grains favored by reduced tillage in the Pacific Northwest. Plant Dis. 70: 70–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wijetunga C and Baker R (1979) Modeling of phenomena associated with soil suppressive to Rhizoctonia solani. Phytopathology 69: 1287–1293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Workneh F and van Bruggen AHC (1994) Microbial density, composition, and diversity in organically and conventionally managed rhizosphere soil in relation to suppression of corky root of tomatoes. Appl. Soil Ecol. 1: 219–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ariena H. C. Van Bruggen
    • 1
  • Niklaus J. Grünwald
    • 1
  • Mark Bolda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations