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Cultural Methods and Soil Nutrient Status in Low and High Input Agricultural Systems, as They Affect Rhizoctonia Species

  • Ariena H. C. Van Bruggen
  • Niklaus J. Grünwald
  • Mark Bolda
Chapter

Abstract

For the purpose of this chapter, low-input crops are defined as crops receiving limited or no synthetic external inputs in the form of pesticides and fertilizers. However, they do receive regular inputs of organic amendments in the form of cover crops, compost or manure to maintain soil fertility, high levels of activity by the soil microflora and fauna, and a good soil structure. Low-input crops are typically grown in organic or biological and integrated farming systems (National Research Council, 1989). Organic or biological farming systems are defined as systems where synthetic fertilizers and pesticides are not used. Instead, biological and cultural methods of pest and disease control are emphasized (National Research Council, 1989). Integrated farming systems may apply pesticides and fertilizers but at a reduced rate compared to conventional farming systems. High-input crops are considered to be crops that receive pesticides and fertilizers as currently used in conventional farming systems. Organic amendments are usually not applied (except in areas with excess manure). In addition to these differences in organic and synthetic inputs, organic and integrated farming systems often differ from conventional farming systems in their tillage operations. On many organic and integrated farms, minimum- tillage practices are utilized, i.e., soil cultivation to a depth of about 15 cm instead of 30 cm or more on conventional farms (El Titi and Landes, 1990). On the other hand, no-till practices are more commonly used on currnet conventional farms because of the need for some tillage for weed control on organic farms. Finally, crop rotations are often longer and spatial diversity greater in organic and integrated farming systems than in conventional farming systems (van Bruggen, 1995).

Keywords

Farming System Organic Amendment Soil Fauna Rhizoctonia Solani Sheath Blight 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ariena H. C. Van Bruggen
    • 1
  • Niklaus J. Grünwald
    • 1
  • Mark Bolda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

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