Promoting General Metacognitive Awareness

  • Gregory Schraw
Part of the Neuropsychology and Cognition book series (NPCO, volume 19)


I describe two aspects of metacognition, knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition, and how they are related to domain-specific knowledge and cognitive abilities. I argue that metacognitive knowledge is multidimensional, domain-general in nature, and teachable. Four instructional strategies are described for promoting the construction and acquisition of metacognitive awareness. These include promoting general awareness, improving self-knowledge and regulatory skills, and promoting learning environments that are conducive to the construction and use of metacognition.


Reading Comprehension Educational Psychology Cognitive Skill Goal Orientation Procedural Knowledge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ackerman, P. C. (1987). Individual differences in skill learning: An integration of the psychometric and information processing perspectives. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 3–27.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, J. M., Carr, M., Schwanentlugel, P. J. (1995). Development of metacognition in gifted children: Directions for future research. Developmental Review, 15, 1–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ames, C., Archer, J. (1988). Achievement in the classroom: Student learning strategies and motivational processes. Journal of Educational Psychology,80, 260–267.Google Scholar
  4. Astington, J. W. (1993). The child’s discovery of mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Baker, L. (1989). Metacognition, comprehension monitoring, and the adult reader. Educational Psychology Review, 1, 3–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bereiter, C., Scardamal ia, M. (1987), The psychology of written composition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, A. (1987). Metacognition, executive control, self-regulation, and other more mysterious mechanisms. In F. Weinert R. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition. motivation. and understanding (pp. 65–116 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  8. Brown, A. L., Palincsar, A. S. (1989). Guided, cooperative learning and individual knowledge acquisition. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing and learning: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser. (pp. 393–451 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, R., Pressley, M. (1994). Self-regulated reading and getting meaning from text: The Transactional Strategies Instruction model and its ongoing validation. In D. H. Schunk and B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Self-regulation of learning and performance: Issues and educational applications. (pp. 155–180 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Butler, D. L., Winne, P. H. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning: A theoretical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65, 245–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cross, D. R., Paris, S. G. (1988). Developmental and instructional analyses of children’s metacognition and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Delclos, V. R., Harrington, C. (1991). Effects of strategy monitoring and proactive instruction on children’s problem solving performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 35–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dweck, C. S., Leggett, E. S. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 2E, 256–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ericsson, K. A., Smith, J. (1991). Toward a general theory of expertise: Prospects and limits. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., Tesch-Romer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100, 363–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Garner, R. (1987). Metacognition and reading comprehension. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.Google Scholar
  17. Garner, R. (1990). When children and adults do not use learning strategies: Toward a theory of settings. Review of Educational Research, 60, 517–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Glaser, R., Chi, M. T. (1988). Overview. in M. Chi, R. Glaser, and M. Farr (Eds.), The nature of expertise (pp. xv -xxviii). Hillsdale, NJ: ErlbaumGoogle Scholar
  19. Graham, S., Weiner, B. (1996). Theories and principles of motivation. In D. Berliner and R. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology, ( 63–84 ). New York: Macmillian.Google Scholar
  20. Halpern, D. F. (1989). Thought and Knowledge: An introduction to critical thinking ( 2nd edition ). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  21. Hartman, H. J., Sternberg, R. J. (1993). A broad BACEIS for improving thinking. Instructional Science, 21, 401–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jacobs, J. E., Paris, S. G. (1987). Children’s metacognition about reading: Issues in definition, measurement, and instruction. Educational Psychologist, 22, 255–278.Google Scholar
  23. Jonassen, D. H., Beissner, K., Yacci, M. (1993). Structural knowledge: Techniques for representing, conveying, and acquiring structural knowledge. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  24. Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1992). Beyond modularity: A developmental perspective on cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  25. King, A. (1991). Effects of training in strategic questioning on children’s problem-solving performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 307–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kuhn, D. (1989). Children and adults as intuitive scientists. Psychological Review, 96, 674–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kuhn, D., Schauble, L., Garcia-Mila, M (1992). Cross-domain development of scientific reasoning. Cognition and Instruction, 9, 285–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Midgley, C., Anderman, E., Hicks, L. (1995). Differences between elementary and middle school teachers and students: A goals theory approach. Journal of Early Adolescence, 15, 90–113Google Scholar
  29. Montgomery, D. E. (1992). Young children’s theory of knowing: The development of a folk epistemology. Developmental Review, 12, 410–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pintrich, P. R., DeGroot, E. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pressley, M., Ghatala, E. S. (1990). Self-regulated learning: Monitoring learning from text. Educational Psychologist, 25, 19–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pressley, M., Borkowski, J. G., Schneider, W. (1987). Cognitive strategies: Good strategy users coordinate metacognition and knowledge. In R. Vasta G. Whitehurst (Eds.), Annals of Child Development (Vol. 5, pp. 89–129 ). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  33. Reynolds, R. E. (1992). Selective attention and prose learning: Theoretical and empirical research. Educational Psychology Review, 4, 345–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rogoff, B. (1990). Apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive development in social context. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Schneider, W., Pressley, M. (1989). Memory development between 2 and 20. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schmuck, R. A., Schmuck, P. A. (1992). Group processes in the classroom ( 6th edition ). Debuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers.Google Scholar
  37. Schon, D. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass PublishersGoogle Scholar
  38. Schraw, G. (1994). The effect of metacognitive knowledge on local and global monitoring. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19, 143–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Schraw, G., Dennison, R. S. (1994). Assessing metacognitive awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19, 460–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schraw, G., Moshman, D. (1995). Metacognitive theories. Educational Psychological Review, 7, 351–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schraw, G., Dunkle, M. E., Bendixen, L. D., Roedel, T. D. (1995). Does a general monitoring skill exist? Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 433–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schraw, G., Iforn, C., Thorndike-Christ, T., Bruning, R. (1995). Academic goal orientations and student classroom achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20, 359–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schunk, D. H. (1989). Self-efficacy and achievement behaviors. Educational Psychology Review, 1, 173–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Siegler, R. S., Jenkins, E. (1989). How children discover new strategies. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  45. Swanson, H. L. (1990). Influence of metacognitive knowledge and aptitude on problem solving. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 306–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory Schraw
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyThe University of Nebraska-LincolnLincolnUSA

Personalised recommendations