Use of the rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas, in freshwater ornamental fish larviculture

  • L. C. Lim
  • C. C. Wong
Part of the Developments in Hydrobiology book series (DIHY, volume 124)

Abstract

The Brachionus calyciflorus used in this study were produced by batch culture using Chlorella spp. as feed. Larviculture experiments in indoor 10–1 and 200–1 tanks revealed that, compared with egg yolk, the rotifers used as starter food significantly improved the growth and survival of Dwarf Gourami larvae (Day 2–12). These beneficial effects also extended to the subsequent Artemia feeding phase (Day 13–32), suggesting that the quality of starter food is crucial to later development. At metamorphosis, the overall survival rate of larvae fed on rotifers in indoor tanks (65.1–74.5%) was about four times of that obtained in extensive culture in open ponds (17.5%). In Discus, larvae are dependent on the body slime of their parent as a nutrient during the first two weeks of exogenous feeding. Our observation demonstrated that Brown Discus larvae could be raised in the absence of the parent fish by using rotifers as starter food followed by Artemia nauplii. Their growth and survival rate were comparable to those on parental feeding. The artificial feeding would eliminate the risk of larvae being eaten by the parent fish and shorten the brooding interval of the spawners, thereby leading to higher yield of fry. This feeding protocol is less tedious and more practical for use in commercial farming of Discus than the existing strategies of smuggling the batch of larvae to foster parents or feeding the larvae with egg food.

The use of rotifers would enable freshwater larviculture to improve larval performance, increase yield, and facilitate breeding of new fish species with small larvae.

Key words

Brachionus calyciflorus ornamental fish larviculture Gourami Discus 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Awaiss, A., 1991. Mass culture and nutritional quality of the freshwater rotifer (Brachionus calyciflorus P.) for gudgeon (Gobio gobio L.) and perch (Perca fluviatiles L.) larvae. Spec. eur. Aquacult. Soc. 15: 113–115.Google Scholar
  2. Awaiss, A:, P. Kestemont and J. C. Micha, 1992. Nutritional suitability of the rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas for rearing freshwater fish larvae. J. appl. Ichthyol. 8: 263–270.Google Scholar
  3. Axelrod, H. R. and M. E. Sweeney, 1992. The Fascination of Breeding Aquarium Fish. T. F. H. Publications, USA, 448 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Degen, B., 1986. The Discus - King of the Aquarium. Bede-Verlag, Kallnburg, West Germany, 103 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Fernandez-Casalderrey, A., M. D. Ferrando and E. Andrew-Moliner, 1992. Effect of sublethal diazinon concentrations on the demographic parameters of Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas (Rotifera). Bull. envir. Contam. Toxicol. 48: 202–208.Google Scholar
  6. Fernando, A. A. and V. P. E. Phang, 1994. Freshwater Ornamental Fish Aquaculture in Singapore. Singapore Polytechnic, Singapore, 123 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Ferrando, M. D., C. Janssen, E. Andreu, and G. Persoone, 1993. Ecotoxicological studies with the freshwater rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus. Resource competition between rotifers and daphnids under toxic stress. Sci. Total envir. Suppl. (1–2): 1059–1069.Google Scholar
  8. Janssen, C. R., M. D. F. Rodrigo and G. Persoone, 1993. Ecotoxicological studies with the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. 1. Conceptual framework and applications. Hydrobiologia 255: 21–32.Google Scholar
  9. Janssen, C. R., G. Personne and T. W. Snell, 1994. Cyst-based toxicity tests. 8. Short-chronic toxicity tests with the freshwater rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus. Aquat. Toxicol. 28: 243–258.Google Scholar
  10. Lim, L. C. and C. C. Wong, 1996. Fry production of freshwater ornamental fish in Singapore. Presented at the World Aquaculture `96, The 1996 Annual Meeting of the World Aquaculture Society, 29 Jan-2 Feb 1996, Bangkok, Thailand.Google Scholar
  11. Ludwig, G. M., 1994. Tank culture of sunshine bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatitir fry with freshwater rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and salmon starter meal as first food sources. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 25: 337–341.Google Scholar
  12. Petrovicky, I., 1988. Aquarium Fish of the World. Arch Cape Press, New York, 499 pp.Google Scholar
  13. Watanabe, T., C. Kitajima and S. Fujita, 1983. Nutritional values of live organisms used in japan for mass propagation of fish: a review. Aquaculture 34: 115–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wattley, J., 1985. Handbook of Discus. T. F. H. Publications, USA, 111 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. C. Lim
    • 1
  • C. C. Wong
    • 1
  1. 1.Ornamental Fish Section, Primary Production DepartmentSembawang Field Experimental StationSingaporeRepublic of Singapore

Personalised recommendations