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Antenna Systems of Red Algae: Phycobilisomes with Photosystem ll and Chlorophyll Complexes with Photosystem I

  • Elisabeth Gantt
  • Beatrice Grabowski
  • Francis X. CunninghamJr.
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 13)

Summary

Red algae have two types of light-harvesting antennas: the phycobilisome which is directly connected to the reaction centers of Photosystem II, and a LHC I complex connected to the reaction centers of PS I. The structure of red algal phycobilisomes is much like those of cyanobacteria, with a central allophycocyanin core surrounded by phycocyanin and with phycoerythrin on the periphery. In many reds the phycobilisome size is larger due mainly to a greater phycoerythrin content. The presence of LHC I may be regarded as a considerable advance in extending the light absorbing capacity in photosynthetic eukaryotes; an exception exists in the glaucocystophytes where LHC complexes have not yet been found. Chlorophyll a is the only type of chlorophyll present, while the presence of chlorophyll d is still in doubt. Zeaxanthin, and sometimes lutein, is the predominant carotenoid. Though zeaxanthin does not appear to function as an antenna pigment, in vitro reconstitution studies show its necessity for LHC stability and chlorophyll insertion. Phylogenetic relatedness of rhodophyte LHCs with those of higher plants, chromophytes, and dinophytes is evident in the high conservation of critical residues in three intrinsic membrane regions and in the successful reconstitution of red algal LHC polypeptides with pigments of other groups. Convincing evidence for excitation energy transfer between PS I and PS II is lacking. Photoacclimation to high light intensity is manifested by a per cell reduction of thylakoid area and chlorophyll, a decrease in the phycoerythrin content per phycobilisome, and a decline in LHC I polypeptides. In cells acclimated to light absorbed primarily by chlorophyll (red) the RC 1 content decreases and the RC 2 increases, in contrast to the opposite response with phycobilisome-absorbing green light. Complementary chromatic adaptation to red or green light, i.e. changes in phycobilisome pigments as in certain cyanobacteria, does not occur in reds.

Keywords

Porphyridium Cruentum Pigment Binding Linker Polypeptide Cyanidium Caldarium Complementary Chromatic Adaptation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

APC

allophycocyanin

Car

carotenoid(s)

Chi

chlorophyll(s)

LCM

linker polypeptide for phycobilisome core-thylakoid association

LHC

light-harvesting complex

LhcaRl, LhcaR2

genes encoding LHC I polypeptides of red algae

LHC I

light-harvesting complex of PS I

PBS

phycobilisome

P700

absorbance change used to assay PS I activity

PC

phycocyanin (Cyanophycean: C-PC, Rhodophycean: R- PC)

PE

phycoerythrin (Bangiophycean: large (B-PE) or small (b-PE) mol. wt., Rhodophycean: large (R-PE) or small (r-PE) mol. wt.)

PS I

Photosystem I

PS II

Photosystem II

QA

primary acceptor of PS II

RC 1

reaction center of PS I

RC 2

reaction center of PS II

Zea

zeaxanthin

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elisabeth Gantt
    • 1
  • Beatrice Grabowski
    • 1
  • Francis X. CunninghamJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, Microbiology BuildingUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

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