New Practical Aspects of Brassinosteroids and Results of Their Ten-Year Agricultural Use in Russia and Belarus

  • Vladimir A. Khripach
  • Vladimir N. Zhabinskii
  • Nataliya B. Khripach


One of characteristic physiological properties of new plant hormones brassinosteroids (BS), when applied exogenously to vegetating plants, is their ability to stimulate plant growth and development. That is why their possible application in agriculture was considered still in the very beginning of BS investigations. Their progress has been extremely rapid. After discovery of brassinolide, the first member of the series, less than twenty years were necessary to start wide practical use of brassinosteroids in agriculture as crop-yieldincreasing and plant-protecting agents. In Russia and Belarus, the first BS-preparation, based on 24-epibrassinolide as active ingredient, has been officially registered in 1992 as potato crop-increasing agrochemical. Later a number of other crops and purposes for its agricultural use have been added. During the developing of practical adaptation of BS many problems connected with commercial-scale production and official status of new agricultural chemical have been solved. Among them: elaboration of economically reasonable synthetic methods for BS preparation, field-scale biological trials with different plant species, toxicological studies, etc. The accumulated experience and results of research programs of different laboratories opened up many new aspects of BS-activity that are very important for further development of this group of phytohormones to a new generation of agricultural chemicals, which are not-conflicting with the environment and explore a new principle in plant protection. These problems and perspectives of agricultural application of brassinosteroids are the subject of the article.


Potato Tuber Leaf Blade Spring Wheat Practical Aspect True Leaf 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abe, H., Marumo, S. (2002). Advance of new plant hormone brassinosteroid. ITE Letters on Batteries, New Technologies and Medicine 3: 43–48.Google Scholar
  2. Abe, H., Soeno, K., Koseki, N.N., Natsume, M. (2001). Conjugated and unconjugated brassinosteroids. ACS Symposium Series (Agrochemical Discovery) 774: 91–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ageeva, L.F., Prusakova, L.D., Chizhova, S.I. (2001). Influence of brassinosteroids on stem formation and potassium and calcium ions content in spring barley plants. Agrokchimiya 6: 49–55.Google Scholar
  4. Alekseeva, K.L., Malevannaya, N.N., Khripach, V.A., Zhabinskii, V.N. (1999). Method of growth stimulation of agarics. Pat. RU 2,160, 000.Google Scholar
  5. Altmann, T. (1999). Molecular physiology of brassinosteroids revealed by the analysis of mutants. Planta 208: 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amzallag, G.N. (2002). Brassinosteroids as metahormones: evidence for their specific influence during the critical period in Sorghum development. Plant Biology 4: 656–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anon. (2000). List of pesticides permitted for application in Belarus for 2000–2010. Minsk:Uradzhai, pp. 199–201, 287–288.Google Scholar
  8. Anon. (2002a). Application of growth regulators in growing the main agricultural crops. Recommendations for collective farms and farmers. Gorky. 28 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Anon. (2002b). List of pesticides permitted for application in Russian Federation. Suppl. to Zashchita i karantin rastenii, pp. 287–293.Google Scholar
  10. Anuradha, S., Rao, S.S.R. (2001). Effect of brassinosteroids on salinity stress induced inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth of rice (Oriza sativa L.). Plant Growth Regulation 33: 151–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Asami, T., Min, Y.K., Nagata, N., Yamagishi, K., Takatsuto, S., Fujioka, S., Murofushi, N., Yamaguchi, I., Yoshida, S. (2000). Characterization of brassinazole, a triazole-type brassinosteroid biosynthesis inhibitor. Plant Physiology 123: 93–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Asami, T., Min, Y.K., Sekimata, K., Shimada, Y., Wang, J.M., Fujioka, S., Yoshida, S. (2001). Mode of action of brassinazole: a specific inhibitor of brassinosteroid biosynthesis. ACS Symposium Series (Agrochemical Discovery) 774: 269–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bajguz, A., Tretyn, A. (2003). The chemical characteristic and distribution of brassinosteroids in plants. Phytochemistry 62: 1027–1046.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bezrukova, M.V., Aval’baev, A.M., Kildibekova, A.R., Fathutdinova, R.A., Shakirova, F.M. (2002). Interaction of wheat lectin and 24-epibrassinolide in regulation of cell division in wheat roots. Doklady Academii Nauk 387: 276–278.Google Scholar
  15. Bishop, G.J., Yokota, T. (2001). Plants steroid hormones, brassinosteroids: current highlights of molecular aspects on their synthesis/metabolism, transport, perception and response. Plant and Cell Physiology 42: 114–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bobric, A.O., Khripach, V.A., Zhabinskii, V.N., Zavadskaya, M.I., Litvinovskaya, R.P. (1998). Method of reproduction of improved potato seed material. Pat. Appl. BY 19981189.Google Scholar
  17. Budai, S.I. (2000). Influence of seed treatment with growth regulators on germinating power and morphologic features of upcoming carrot plants (Daucus carota L.). Vestsy Natsionalnoi Academii Nauk Belarusi, Seriya biologicheskich nauk 3: 38–41.Google Scholar
  18. Budai, S.I., Laman, N.A. (2001). Influence of growth regulators on morphologic features of beetroot plants (Beta vulgaris L.V. Esculenta) at the phase of crop formation. Vestsy Natsionalnoi Academii Nauk Belarusi, Seriya biologicheskich nauk 1: 15–18.Google Scholar
  19. Budykina, N.P., Drozdov, S.N., Kurets, V.K., Khripach, V.A. (2001). Synthetic growth regulators–means of enhancement of tomato production in greenhouses in Karelia. 2th Conference on Regulation of Plant Growth and Productivity. Minsk, p. 26.Google Scholar
  20. Catterou, M., Dubois, F., Schaller, H., Aubanelle, L., Vilcot, B., Sangwan-Norreel, B.S., Sangwan, R.S. (2001). Brassinosteroids, microtubules and cell elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. I. Molecular, cellular and physiological characterization of the Arabidopsis bull mutant, defective in the 07-sterol-C5-desaturation step leading to brassinosteroid biosynthesis. Planta 212: 659–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chirillov, A., Khripach, V., Toma, S., Scurtul, A., Zhabinskii, V., Cozmic, R., Zavadskaya, M., Erlinman, J. (1996). The procedure of cultivation of grape. Pat. MD 701F1.Google Scholar
  22. Chizhova, S.I., Golantseva, E.N., Prusakova, L.D., Tretiakov, N.N., Jakovlev, A.F. (2001). Influence of epibrassinolide and emistim on drought tolerance of wheat of different genotypes. 6th Conference on Regulators of Plant Growth and Development in Biotechnology. Moscow, pp. 131–132.Google Scholar
  23. Choe, S., Feldmann, K.A. (2002). Dwf7 mutants. U.S. Pat. Appl. US 20020068822 A1.Google Scholar
  24. Choe, S., Noguchi, T., Fujioka, S., Takatsuto, S., Tissier, C.P., Gregory, B.D., Ross, A.S., Tanaka, A., Yoshida, S., Tax, F.E., Feldmann, K.A. (1999). The Arabidopsis dwf7/ste1 mutant is defective in the 07 sterol C-5 desaturation step leading to brassinosteroid biosynthesis. Plant Cell 11: 207–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chory, J., Li, J. (1997). Gibberellins, brassinosteroids and light-regulated development. Plant Cell Environment 20: 801–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Clouse, S.D. (2001). Integration of light and brassinosteroid signals in etiolated seedling growth. Trends in Plant Science 6: 443–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Clouse, S.D. (2002). Brassinosteroids. Plant counterparts to animal steroid hormones? Vitamins and Hormones 65: 195–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Deeva, V.P., Vedeneev, A.N., Sanko, N.V., Colovei, K.I., Tzareva, E.G. (2001). Mechanisms of regulation of metabolic processes and adaptive properties of different genotypes by growth regulators. 2th Conference on Regulation of Plant Growth and Productivity. Minsk, pp. 57–58.Google Scholar
  29. Dhaubhadel, S., Chaudhary, S., Dobinson, K.F., Krishna, P. (1999). Treatment with 24-epibrassinolide, a brassinosteroid, increases the basic thermotolerance of Brassica napus and tomato seedlings. Plant Molecular Biology 40: 333–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dhaubhadel, S., Browning, K.S., Gallie, D.R., Krishna, P. (2002). Brassinosteroid functions to protect the translational machinery and heat-shock protein synthesis following thermal stress. Plant Journal 29: 681–691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dulin, A.F., Stepanova, T.A. (2002). Influence of growth regulators on seed germination of aralia and eleutherococcus. Agrokhimiya 4: 42–47.Google Scholar
  32. Dulin, A.F., Stepanova, T.A., Matiuschenko, N.V. (2002). Influence of growth regulators on seed quality of some legume herbs. Agrokhimiya 7: 56–60.Google Scholar
  33. Elagina, E.M., V’iygina, G.V. (2001). Influence of epibrassinolide on the physiological parameters of cucumber. 6th Conference on Regulators of Plant Growth and Development in Biotechnology. Moscow, p. 28.Google Scholar
  34. Filipas, A.S., Ul’yanenko, L.N. (2001). Influence of growth regulators of potato crop yield and quality. 6th Conference on Regulators of Plant Growth and Development in Biotechnology. Moscow, p. 284.Google Scholar
  35. Ghasempour, H.R., Anderson, E.M., Gaff, D.F. (2001). Effects of growth substances on the protoplasmic drought tolerance of leaf cells of the resurrection grass, Sporobolus stapfianus. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 28 1115–1120.Google Scholar
  36. Goncharic, V.M. (2001). Efficiency of combined application of growth regulators and microelements to potato. 6th Conference on Regulators of Plant Growth and Development in Biotechnology. Moscow, p. 227.Google Scholar
  37. Grove, M.D., Spencer, G.F., Rohwedder, W.K., Mandava, N., Worley, J.F., Warthen, J.D., Steffens, G.L., Flippen-Anderson, J.L., Cook, J.C. (1979). Brassinolide, a plant growth-promoting steroid isolated from Brassica napus pollen. Nature 281: 216–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hong, Z., Ueguchi-Tanaka, M., Shimizu-Sato, S., Inukai, Y., Fujioka, S., Shimada, Y., Takatsuto, S., Agetsuma, M., Yoshida, S., Watanabe, Y., Uozu, S., Kitano, H., Ashikari, M., Matsuoka, M. (2002). Loss-of-function of a rice brassinosteroid biosynthetic enzyme, C-6 oxidase, prevents the organized arrangement and polar elongation of cells in the leaves and stem. Plant Journal 32: 495–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ilkovets, I.M., Sokolovskii, S.G., Nayt, M.R., Volotovskii, I.D. (1999). Phytohormonal control of Ca2+ concentration in plant cell cytoplasm. Vesti NAN Belarusi Seriya Biologicheskich Navuk 58–62.Google Scholar
  40. Jenkins, G.I. (1997). UV and blue light signal transduction in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Environment 20: 773–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kalituho, L.N., Chaika, M.T., Mazhul, V.M., Khripach, V.A. (1996). Effect of 24-epibrassinolide on pigment apparatus formation. Proceedings of the Plant Growth Regulation Society of America 23: 36–40.Google Scholar
  42. Kalituho, L.N., Chaika, M.T., Kabashnikova, L.F., Makarov, V.N., Khripach, V.A. (1997a). On the phytochrome mediated action of brassinosteroids. Proceedings of the Plant Growth Regulation Society of America 24: 140–145.Google Scholar
  43. Kalituho, L.N., Kabashnikova, L.F., Chaika, M.T. (1997b). Action of epibrassinolide on processes of growth and accumulation of photosynthetic pigments in triticale seedlings. Doklady Akademii Nauk Belarusi 41: 69–72.Google Scholar
  44. Kamuro, Y., Inada, K. (1991). The effect of brassinolide on the light-induced growth inhibition in mung bean epicotyl. Plant Growth Regulation 10: 37–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kang, J.G., Park, C.M. (2002). Cloning, characterization and use of pea cytochrome P 450 hydroxylase involved in brassinosteroid biosynthesis of plants. Eur. Pat. Appl. EP 1209227 A2.Google Scholar
  46. Kang, J.G., Yun, J., Kim, D.H., Chung, K.S., Fujioka, S., Kim, J.I., Dae, H.W., Yoshida, S., Takatsuto, S., Song, P.S., Park, C.M. (2001). Light and brassinosteroid signals are integrated via a dark-induced small G protein in etiolated seedling growth. Cell 105: 625–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Karnachuk, R.A., Golovatskaya, I.F., Efimova, M.V., Khripach, V.A. (2002). Action of epibrassinolide on morphogenesis and hormonal balance in Arabidopsis seedlings at green light. Plant Physiology (Rus.) 49: 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kasukabe, Y., Fujisawa, K., Nishiguchi, S., Maekawa, Y., Allen, R.D. (1999). Cloning, cDNA sequences and expression of cotton fiber tissue-specific genes. Pat. US 5, 932, 713.Google Scholar
  49. Khodiankov, A.A. (2001). Effect of epibrassinolide and immunotzitofite on drought resistance of flax. 6th Conference on Regulators of Plant Growth and Development in biotechnology. Moscow, p. 289.Google Scholar
  50. Khodiankova, S.F., Duktov, B.P. (2002). Effectiveness of treatment of flax seeds with growth regulators. Ahova Raslin 6: 9.Google Scholar
  51. Khripach, V.A., Voronina, L.V., Malevannaya, N.N. (1996a). Preparation for the diminishing of heavy metals accumulation by agricultural plants. Pat. RU 2,119, 285.Google Scholar
  52. Khripach, V.A., Zhabinskii, V.N., Litvinovskaya, R.P., Zavadskaya, M.I., Savelieva, E.A., Karas, I.I., Vakulenko, V.V. (1 996b). Method of enhancement of food value of potato. Pat. BY 3488.Google Scholar
  53. Khripach, V.A., Zhabinskii, V.N., Litvinovskaya, R.P., Zavadskaya, M.I., Savelieva, E.A., Karas, I.I., Kilchevskii, A.V., Titova, C.H. (1996c). Method of protection of potato from phytophtora infection. Pat. BY 3400.Google Scholar
  54. Khripach, V.A., Zhabinskii, V.N., Malevannaya, N.N. (1997a). Recent advances in brassinosteroids study and application. Proceedings of the Plant Growth Regulation Society of America 24: 101–106.Google Scholar
  55. Khripach, V.A., Zhabinskii, V.N., Litvinovskaya, R.P., Zavadskaya, M.I., Deeva, V.P., Vedeneev, A.N. (1997b). Preparation for diminishing of radionuclides accumulation by plants and method of its application. Pat. BY 2806.Google Scholar
  56. Khripach, V.A., Zhabinskii, V.N., Litvinovskaya, R.P., Zavadskaya, M.I., Volynets, A.P., Prochrchick, R.A., Pshenichnaya, L.A., Manzhelesova, N.E., Morozick, G.V. (1997c). Method of protection of barley plants from leave diseases. Pat. BY 5168.Google Scholar
  57. Khripach, V.A., Zhabinskii, V.N., de Groot, A. (1999). Brassinosteroids. A New Class of Plant Hormones. pp. 338, Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  58. Khripach, V., Zhabinskii, V., de Groot, A. (2000). Twenty years of brassinosteroids: steroidal plant hormones warrant better crops for the XXI century. Annals of Botany 86: 441–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kilchevskii, A.V., Frantsuzionok, V.V. (1997). Effect of epibrassinolide on proliferation of lily explants. In “Regulators of plant growth and development”, 4th, pp. 297–298, Moscow.Google Scholar
  60. Kim, T.H., Kim, B.H., von Arnim, A.G. (2002). Repressors of photomorphogenesis. International Review of Cytology 220: 185–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Koka, C.V., Cerny, R.E., Gardner, R.G., Noguchi, T., Fujioka, S., Takatsuto, S., Yoshida, S., Clouse, S.D. (2000). A putative role for the tomato genes DUMPY and CURL-3 in brassinosteroid biosynthesis and response. Plant Physiology 122: 85–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kolotovkina, Y.B., Prusakova, L.D., Sal’nikov, A.I., Ezhov, M.N. (2001). Influence of growth regulators ecost and epibrassinolide on pigment complex of buckwheat of different genotypes. 6th Conference on Regulators of Plant Growth and Development in Biotechnology. Moscow, p. 100.Google Scholar
  63. Korableva, N.P., Suchova, L.S., Muromtsev, G.S., Koreneva, V.M., Kozakova, V.I., Karsunkina, N.P., Dogonadze, M.Z. (1992). Method of potato treatment for long-term preservation. Pat. SU 1,794, 261.Google Scholar
  64. Korableva, N.P., Platonova, T.A., Dogonadze, M.Z. (1998). Effect of brassionalide on the ethylene biosynthesis in potato tuber meristems Solanum tuberosum L. Doklady Akademii Nauk (Russia) 361: 113–115.Google Scholar
  65. Korableva, N.P., Platonova, T.A., Dogonadze, M.Z., Evsunina, A.S. (2002). Brassinolide effect of growth of apical meristems, ethylene production, and abscisic acid content in potato tubers. Biologia Plantarum 45: 39–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kukresh, S.P., Khodiankova, S.F. (2002). Increase of crop yield and quality of flax. Agrarnaya Nauka 7: 13–14.Google Scholar
  67. Likchacheva, T.S. (2001). Influence of epibrassinolide treatment on physiological processes in bean plants of “Rubin” variety. 6th Conference on Regulators of Plant Growth and Development in Biotechnology. Moscow, p. 45.Google Scholar
  68. Likchacheva, T.S., Klimachev, D.A., Starikova, V.T. (2001). Influence of level of mineral supply and epibrassinolide treatment on hormone status of tomato generative organs. 6th Conference on Regulators of Plant Growth and Development in Biotechnology. Moscow, p. 44.Google Scholar
  69. Luccioni, L.G., Oliverio, K.A., Yanovsky, M.J., Boccalandro, H.E., Casal, JJ. 2002. Brassinosteroid mutants uncover fine tuning of phytochrome signaling. Plant Physiology 128: 173–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Malevannaya, N.N., Bednarskaya, I. (1995). Epin. Priusadebnoye Choziaystvo 8–9.Google Scholar
  71. Malevannaya, N.N., Kositsina-Pinegina, E. (1996). Epin–antistress agent. Tsvetovodstvo 7–8.Google Scholar
  72. Manzhelesova, N.E. (1997). Content of phenolic compounds and activity of peroxidase in infected by Helminthosporium teres Sacc. barley treated with epibrassinolide. Vesti AN Belarusi Seriya Biologicheskich Navuk 20–24.Google Scholar
  73. Matevosian, G.L., Kudashov, A.A., Ezhov, A.K., Sotnik, V.G. (2001). Influence of growth regulators on growth, productivity and crop quality of tomato in greenhouses. Agrokhimiya 11: 49–58.Google Scholar
  74. Maugh, T.H. (1981). New chemicals promise larger crops. Science 212: 33–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Melnikov, S.S., Manakina, E.E., Budakova, E.A. (1999). Effect of epibrassinolide on productivity of algae. Vesti AN Belarusi Seriya Biologicheskich Navuk 44–48.Google Scholar
  76. Mori, M., Nomura, T., Ooka, H., Ishizaka, M., Yokota, T., Sugimoto, K., Okabe, K., Kajiwara, H., Satoh, K., Yamamoto, K., Hirochika, H., Kikuchi, S. (2002). Isolation and characterization of a rice dwarf mutant with a defect in brassinosteroid biosynthesis. Plant Physiology 130: 1152–1161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nakaya, M., Tsukaya, H., Murakami, N., Kato, M. (2002). Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant and Cell Physiology 43: 239–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Neff, M.M., Nguyen, S.M., Malancharuvil, E.J., Fujioka, S., Noguchi, T., Seto, H., Tsubuki, M., Honda, T., Takatsuto, S., Yoshida, S., Chori, J. (1999). BAS1: A gene regulating brassinosteroid levels and light responsiveness in Arabidopsis. (1999). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96: 15316–15323.Google Scholar
  79. Nilovskaya, N.T., Ostapenko, N.V., Seregina, I.I. (2001). Effect of epibrassinolide on the productivity and drought resistance of spring wheat. 2001. Agrokhimiya 2: 46–50.Google Scholar
  80. Noguchi, T., Fujioka, S., Choe, S., Takatsuto, S., Yoshida, S., Yuan, H., Feldmann, K.A., Tax, F.E. (1999). Brassinosteroid-insensitive dwarf mutants of Arabidopsis accumulate brassinosteroids. Plant Physiology 121: 743–752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ozolina, N.V., Pradedova, E.V., Reutskaya, A.M., Salyaev, R.K. (1999). The effects of brassinosteroids on tonoplast proton pumps. Doklady Akademii Nauk 367: 829–830.Google Scholar
  82. Persikova, T.F. (2001). Efficiency of growth regulators depending on the feeding conditions of narrow-leaved lupine. Achova raslin 23–25.Google Scholar
  83. Pirogovskaya, G.V. (2000) Slow-Release Fertilizers. Minsk. 287 pp.Google Scholar
  84. Pirogovskaya, G.V., Bogdevitch, I.M., Naumova, G.V., Khripach, V.A., Azizbekyan, S.G., Krul, L.P. (1996). New forms of mineral fertilizers with additives of plant growth regulators. Proceedings of the Plant Growth Regulation Society of America 23: 146–151.Google Scholar
  85. Pirogovskaya, G.V., Khripach, V.A., Lapa, V.V., Rusalovich, A.M., Zhabinskii, V.N., Ivanenko, N.N., Bogdevitch, I.M., Krul, L.P. (1997). Fertilizers with biologically active additives of brassinosteroids. Pat. BY 3400.Google Scholar
  86. Platonova, T.A. (1998). Effects of epibrassinolide on the endoplasmic reticulum of apical cells of potato tubers. Prikladnaya Biokhimiya i Mikrobiologiya 34: 553–559.Google Scholar
  87. Platonova, T.A., Korableva, N.P. (1999a). Changes of the Golgi apparatus in potato tuber meristems Solanum tuberosum L. in the course of transition from rest to growth and under the action of brassinolide. Doklady Akademii Nauk (Russia) 369: 557–560.Google Scholar
  88. Platonova, T.A., Korableva, N.P. (1 999b). Study on the Golgi apparatus in tuber apices of potato during rest regulation under the action of epibrassinolide. Prikladnaya Biokhimiya i Mikrobiologiya 35: 599–603.Google Scholar
  89. Popova, M.P., Zolotar, R.M. (2001). Protection action of brassinosteroids on cucumber at low temperature. 6th Conference on Regulators of Plant Growth and Development in Biotechnology. Moscow, pp. 116–117.Google Scholar
  90. Popova, M.P., Zotova, G.S. (2001). Antistress properties of growth regulators. 6th Conference on Regulators of Plant Growth and Development in Biotechnology. Moscow, p. 117.Google Scholar
  91. Pradedova, E.V., Ozolina, N.V., Korzun, A.M., Salyaev, R.K. (2002). Effect of epibrassinolide on activities of the tonoplast H+-ATPase and H+-pyrophosphatase under conditions of high and low KCl concentrations. Biologicheskie Membrany (Moscow) 19: 216–220.Google Scholar
  92. Prusakova, L.D., Chizhova, S.I., Khripach, V.A. (1995). Stability and productivity of barley and wheat under the action of brassinosteroids. Sel’skochosyaistvennaya Biologiya 93–97.Google Scholar
  93. Prusakova, L.D., Ezhov, M.N., Sal’nikov, A.I. (1999a). Application of emistim, epibrassinolide, and uniconazol for overcoming heterogeneity of buckwheat crop. Agrarnaya Rossiya 1: 41–44.Google Scholar
  94. Prusakova, L.D., Chizhova, S.I., Tretiakov, N.N., Ageeva, L.F., Golantseva, E.N., Jakovlev, A.F. (1999b). Antistress properties of ecost and epibrassinolide on spring wheat in the conditions of the Central nonchernozem zone. Agrarnaya Rossiya 1: 39–41.Google Scholar
  95. Prusakova, L.D., Chizhova, C.B., Matamoros, K.M.R. (2000a). Spring wheat allocytoplasmic hybrid response to epibrassinolide action in soil drought conditions. Agrokhimiya 52–55.Google Scholar
  96. Prusakova, L.D., Chizhova, S.I., Ageeva, L.F., Golantseva, E.N., Jakovlev, A.F. (2000b). Influence of epibrassinolide and ecost on drought tolerance and productivity of spring wheat. Agrokhimiya 50–54.Google Scholar
  97. Pshenichnaya, L.A., Khripach, V.A., Volynets, A.P., Prokhorchik, R.A., Manzhelesova, N.E., Morozik, G.V. (1997). Brassinosteroids and resistance of barley plants to leave deseases. In Problems of Experimental Botany, pp. 210–217. Byelorussian Science. Minsk.Google Scholar
  98. Pustovoitova, T.N., Zhdanova, N.E., Zholkevich, V.N. (2001). Influence of epibrassinolide on adaptation processes in Cucumus sativus L. plants in drought soil conditions. 6th Conference on Regulators of Plant Growth and Development in Biotechnology. Moscow, p. 61.Google Scholar
  99. Ramonell, K.M., Kuang, A., Porterfield, D.M., Crispi, M.L., Xiao, Y., McClure, G., Musgrave, M.E. (2001). Influence of atmospheric oxygen on leaf structure and starch deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Environment 24: 419–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rao, S.S.R., Vardhini, B.V., Sujatha,E., Anarudha, S. (2002). Brassinosteroids–a new class of phytohormones. Current Science 82: 1239–1244.Google Scholar
  101. Rodkin, A.I., Konovalova, G.I., Bobric, A.O. (1997). Efficiency of application of biologically active substances in primary breeding of potato. 4th Conference on Regulators of Plant Growth and Development, Moscow, pp. 317–318.Google Scholar
  102. Romanov, G.A. (2002). The phytohormone receptors. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology (Translation of Fiziologiya Rastenii (Moscow)) 49: 552–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Runkova, L.V. (1995). Effect of epibrassinolide on flowering of some ornamental plants. In “Brassinosteroids –biorational, ecologically safe regulators of growth and productivity of plants”, 4th. Minsk, pp. 10–11.Google Scholar
  104. Runkova, L.V. (2000). Effect of Epin on cloning of ornamentals. Tsvetovodstvo: 3.Google Scholar
  105. Sakurai A, Yokota T, Clouse SD (eds). 1999. Brassinosteroids. Steroidal Plant Hormones. Springer-Verlag, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  106. Sanko, N.V. (2001). Resistance of different barley genotypes to water stress. 2th Conference on Regulation of Plant Growth and Productivity. Minsk, pp. 186–187.Google Scholar
  107. Schaller, H. (2003). The role of sterols in plant growth and development. Progress in Lipid Research 42: 163–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Schmidt, J., Spengler, B., Voigt, B., Adam, G. (2000). Brassinosteroids-structures, analysis and synthesis. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry (Evolution of Metabolic Pathways) 34: 385–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Schnabl, H., Roth, U., Friebe, A. (2001). Brassinosteroid-induced stress tolerances of plants. Recent Research Developments in Phytochemistry 5: 169–183.Google Scholar
  110. Schneider, B. (2002). Pathways and enzymes of brassinosteroid biosynthesis. Progress in Botany 63: 286–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Schultz, L., Kerckhoffs, L.H., Klahre, U., Yokota, T., Reid, J.B. (2001). Molecular characterization of the brassinosteroid-deficient lkb mutant in pea. Plant Molecular Biology 47: 491–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sekimata, K., Kimura, T., Kaneko, I., Nakano, T., Yoneyama, K., Takeuchi, Y., Yoshida, S., Asami, T. (2001). A specific brassinosteroid biosynthesis inhibitor, Brz2001: evaluation of its effects on Arabidopsis, cress, tobacco, and rice. Planta 213: 716–721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Shakirova, F.M., Bezrukova, M.V. (1998). Effect of 24-epibrassinolide and salinity on the levels of ABA and lectin. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 45: 388–391.Google Scholar
  114. Shakirova, F.M., Bezrukova, M.V., Aval’baev, A.M., Gimalov, F.R. (2002). Stimulation of wheat germ agglutinin gene expression in root seedlings by 24-epibrassinolide. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 49: 253–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Shimada, Y., Fujioka, S., Miyauchi, N., Kushiro, M., Takatsuto, S., Nomura, T., Yokota, T., Kamiya, Y., Bishop, G.J., Yoshida, S. (2001). Brassinosteroid-6-oxidases from Arabidopsis and tomato catalyze multiple C-6 oxidations in brassinosteroid biosynthesis. Plant Physiology 126: 770–779.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sudnic, A.F., Deeva, V.P. (2001). Influence of combined application of growth promoters and fungicides on growth, development, and productivity of barley. 2th Conference on Regulation of Plant Growth and Productivity. Minsk, pp. 196–197.Google Scholar
  117. Symons, G.M., Reid, J.B. (2003). Hormone levels and response during de-etiolation in pea. Planta 216: 422–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Takeno, K., Pharis, R.P. (1982). Brassinosteroid-induced bending of the leaf lamina of dwarf rice seedlings: an auxin-mediated phenomenon. Plant and Cell Physiology. 23: 1275–1281.Google Scholar
  119. Tanaka, H., Kayano, T., Matsuoka, M. (2003). Gene concerning brassinosteroid-sensitivity of plants and utilization thereof. Eur. Pat. Appl. EP 1275719 A1.Google Scholar
  120. Timeiko, L.V., Khripach, V.A., Talanov, A.V., Drozdov, S.N. (2001). Influence of epibtassinolide on CO2–exchange, growth, development and productivity of cucumber in greenhouses. 2th Conference on Regulation of Plant Growth and Productivity. Minsk, p. 200–201.Google Scholar
  121. Tishchenko, S.Y., Karnachuk, R.A., Khripach, V.A. (2001). Epibrassinolide participation in growth photoregulation and hormonal balance of Arabidopsis under blue light. Vestnik Bashkirskogo Universiteta 166–167.Google Scholar
  122. Tzareva, E.G. (2001). Influence of plant growth regulators at the initial stage of barley ontogenesis on exposure to low temperature. 6th Conference on Regulators of Plant Growth and Development in Biotechnology. Moscow, p. 130.Google Scholar
  123. Tzyganov, A.P., Persikova, T.F., Vildflush, I.P. (1999). Efficiency of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, foliar growth regulator application on spring wheat depending on the level of mineral fertilizers. Mezhdunarodnyi Agrarnyi Zhurnal 3: 20–23.Google Scholar
  124. Tzyganov, A.P., Persikova, T.F., Kakshintsev, A.V. (2001). Influence of physiologically active compounds on productivity of narrow-leaved lupine. 6th Conference on Regulators of Plant Growth and Development in Biotechnology. Moscow, p. 290–291.Google Scholar
  125. Vasyukova, N.I., Chalenko, G.I., Kaneva, I.M., Khripach, V.A., Ozeretskovskaya, O.L. (1994). Brassinosteroids and potato late blight. Prikladnaya Biokchimiya and Microbiologiya 30: 464–470.Google Scholar
  126. Vedeneev, A.N., Deeva, V.P. (2001). Pole of a nucleus and cytoplasm in lipid metabolism of separate genotypes under the action of growth regulators in the conditions of water stress. 2th Conference on Regulation of Plant Growth and Productivity. Minsk, pp. 31–32.Google Scholar
  127. Vildflush, I.P., Deeva, V.P., Gurban, K.A. (2001). Influence of biologically active compounds on barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L.) on sward-podzolic light-loamy soils. Vestsy Natsionalnoi Academii Nauk Belarusi Seriya Biologicheskich Nauk 1: 23–26.Google Scholar
  128. Vlasova, N.N., Laman, N.A., Stratilatova, E.V. (2000). Influence of epibrassinolide on earing synchrony and productivity of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Vestsy Natsionalnoi Academii Nauk Belarusi Seriya Biologicheskich Nauk 4: 21–24.Google Scholar
  129. Vlasova, N.N., Laman, N.A., Stratilatova, E.V., Trufanova, Y.V. (2002). Influence of kinetin and epibrassinolide on the morphogenetic character of main shoot apex of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Vestsy Natsionalnoi Academii Nauk Belarusi Seriya Biologicheskich Nauk 1: 17–19.Google Scholar
  130. Volynets, A.P., Pshenichnaya, L.A., Manzhelesova, N.E., Morozik, G.V., Khripach, V.A. (1997b). The nature of protective action of 24-epibrassinolide on barley plants. Proceedings of the Plant Growth Regulation Society of America 24: 133–137.Google Scholar
  131. Voskresenskaya, L.G., Khripach, V.A., Zhabinskii, V.N., Zavadskaya, M.I., Litvinovskaya, R.P. (1998). Method of enhancement of flax productivity and of quality of flax fiber. Pat. BY 5212.Google Scholar
  132. Wada, K., Marumo, S., Ikekawa, N., Morisaki, M., Mori, K. (1981). Brassinolide and homobrassinolide promotion of lamina inclination of rice seedlings. Plant and Cell Physiology 22: 323–325.Google Scholar
  133. Wang, Z.Y., Chory, J. (2000). Recent advances in molecular genetic studies of the functions of brassinolide, a steroid hormone in plants. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry (Evolution of Metabolic Pathways) 3: 409–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Winter, J. (2001). Enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of brassinosteroids. Studies in Natural Products Chemistry (Bioactive Natural Products (Part F)) 25: 413–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Yamamuro, C., Ihara, Y., Wu, X., Noguchi, T., Fujioka, S., Takatsuto, S., Ashikari, M., Kitano, H.Google Scholar
  136. Matsuoka, M. (2000). Loss of function of a rice brassinosteroid insensit: 1591–1606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Zabolotnyi, A.I., L’vov, N.P., Khripach, V.A., Kudryashova, N.N. (2003). Role of trophic and hormonal factors in exogenous regulation of the formation of reproductive organs in yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.). Prikladnaya Biokhimiya i Mikrobiologiya 39: 99–104.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vladimir A. Khripach
  • Vladimir N. Zhabinskii
  • Nataliya B. Khripach

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations