Ants, Bees, Wasps, Ichneumon Flies, Sawflies Etc.
  • O. W. Richards
  • R. G. Davies


Insects with 2 pairs of membranous wings, often with the venation greatly reduced; the hind wings smaller than the fore pair and interlocked with the latter by means of hooklets. Mouthparts primarily adapted for biting and often for lapping or sucking also. The abdomen usually basally constricted and its first segment fused with the metathorax; an ovipositor always present and modified for sawing, piercing or stinging. Metamorphosis complete; larva generally apodous with a more or less well-developed head, more rarely eruciform with locomotory appendages; tracheal system usually holopneustic or peripneustic throughout life, or at least in the final instar. Pupae adecticous, exarate (rarely obtect) and a cocoon generally present.


Abdominal Segment Fore Wing Hind Wing Hind Tibia Hind Femur 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© O. W. Richards and R. G. Davies 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. W. Richards
    • 1
  • R. G. Davies
    • 1
  1. 1.Imperial CollegeUniversity of LondonUK

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