What Happens in the Intracellular Environment after Blood Ozonization?
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It has just been described that ozone, after dissolving in plasma, generates H2O2 and LOPs. The concentration of H2O2 in the plasma results from a dynamic equilibrium between its synthesis and diffusion into intracellular water due to the concentration gradient formed between plasma and cytoplasm. Once inside the cell at a concentration above threshold levels, H2O2 can switch on biochemical pathways, but it is simultaneously reduced by the potent antioxidant system (Chapter 12). Most of the LOPs can interact with cell receptors, membrane cytoplasmic and even nuclear components. Owing to the heterogeneity and potential toxicity of LOPs, the extent and relevance of their activities is currently beyond our grasp, a situation that compels cautious action. On the other hand, the ozone dose is calibrated against: a) the antioxidant capacity of blood, b) the enormous cellular surface area (about 70 m2 for erythrocytes in 100 ml of blood), c) the plasma and cellular fluid and d) the capacity of metabolic breakdown. It is intriguing to think that this phase of “oxidative” stress ex vivo subsides in about five minutes and it is indispensable for generation of the therapeutic “shock” to the organism once the ozonized blood returns to the donor’s blood circulation.