Advertisement

Does Azolla have any future in agriculture?

  • C. van Hove
  • A. Lejeune
Part of the Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences book series (DPSS, volume 70)

Abstract

For centuries Azolla has been recognized as a useful plant by farmers from limited areas of southern China, northern Vietnam and South America. It was not until the sixties nevertheless that a boom in Azolla research appeared, simultaneously, in China and Vietnam, accompanied by a wide increase of Azolla cultivation in these countries.

The first oil crisis, in 1973, induced a world-wide interest for biological N-fixation, and thus for Azolla, and research programmes on this plant were initiated during the late seventies by international organizations such as the International Rice Research Institute and the West Africa Rice Development Association but also by many other research centres, all around the world.

A great enthusiasm, during the eighties, has recently been succeeded by a period of skepticism about the potential of Azolla in agriculture.

Time seems ripe for critically reviewing the major points of view recently expressed on this matter. The present communication is devoted to this task; the conclusion will be reached that Azolla has a promising future in some regions. Strategies aimed at improving the effective use of Azolla will be suggested; they include laboratory as well as field work.

Keywords

Rice Field Green Manure Great Enthusiasm Irrigate Rice Field Azolla Filiculoides 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amerasinghe F P, Kulasooriya S A 1986. Azolla vs mosquitoes: some experiments with Culex quinquefasciatus. Mircen J., 2, 355–363.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous 1987. Crowing Azolla from spores. National Azolla Action Programme, University of the Philippines, Los Banos. 16 p.Google Scholar
  3. Braemer P 1927. La culture des Azolla au Tonkin. Rev. Bot. Appl. Agric. Col., 7, 816–819.Google Scholar
  4. Chevalier A 1926. La culture des Azolla pour la nourriture des animaux de basse-cour et comme engrais vert pour les rizières. Rev. Bot. Appl. Paris, 6, 356–360.Google Scholar
  5. de Waha Baillonville T, Diara H F, Watanabe I, Berthet P, Van Hove C 1991. Assessment and attempt to explain the high performance of Azolla in subdesertic tropics versus humid tropics. Plant Soil, 137 (1), 145–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. de Wet L P D, Schoonbee H J, Pretorius J, Bezuidenhout L M 1990. Bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals by the water fern, Azolla filiculoides Lam. in a wetland ecosystem affected by sewage, mine and industrial pollution. Water S A, 16 (4), 281–6.Google Scholar
  7. Diara H F, Van Hove C 1984. Azolla, a water saver in irrigated rice fields? Practical Application of Azolla for Rice Production, Proc. Int. Workshop, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, 17–19 Nov, 1982. Silver W S, Schroder E C). Nijhoff Junk, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  8. Diara H F, Van Brandt H, Diop A M, Van Hove C 1987. Azolla and its use in rice culture in West Africa. A zolla Utilization. Proceedings of a Workshop on Azolla Use, Fuzhou, Fujian, China, 31 Mar-5 Apr, 1985. Int. Rice Res. Inst. 147–152.Google Scholar
  9. Feuillée L 1725. Histoire des plantes médicinalse de Perou et Chily [French]. Journal des observations physiques, mathématiques et botaniques faites sur l’ordre du roi sur les côtes orientales dans l’Amérique méridionale et dans les Indes occidentales depuis 1707–12. vol. 3, 426p. Griffart, Paris.Google Scholar
  10. Ge S A, Xu D X, Shen Z H 1980. Salt tolerance of Azolla filiculoides and its effects on the growth of paddy in Winwei Haitu [Chinese]. Zhejiang Nongye Kexun, 1, 17–20.Google Scholar
  11. Ghesquière L, Colot C, Rakouzafy V, Razafimahery B, Van Hove C 1995. The integration of Azolla in agro-piscicultural systems in Madagascar. In: Proc. of a seminar on the management of integrated freshwater agro-piscicultural ecosystems in tropical areas, Brussels, 16–19 May 1994. (Ed. by Symoens JJ, Micha JC ). Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (CTA). 373–380.Google Scholar
  12. Gu Y N 1983. Preliminary report on the improvement of a seaside soil by cultivating Azolla [Chinese]. Soil Fertil, 3, 22–24.Google Scholar
  13. Hance Th, Nibelle D, Lebrun Ph, Van Impe G, Van Hove C 1994a. Selection of Azolla forms resistant to the water lily aphid, Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae. Life history of Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae. Entomol. Exp. Appl., 70, 11–17.Google Scholar
  14. Hance Th, Nibelle D, Lebrun Ph, Van Impe G, Van Hove C I 994b. Selection of Azolla forms resistant to the water lily aphid, Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae. Susceptibility of Azolla forms to Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae. Entomol. Exp. Appl., 70, 19–25.Google Scholar
  15. IRRI. 1987. Azolla Utilization. Proceedings of Workshop on Azolla Use, Fuzhou, Fujian, China, 31 March-5 April 1985. Int. Rice Res. Inst., Manila. 1–296.Google Scholar
  16. Kröck T, Alkämper J, Watanabe I 1988a. Der beitrag von Azolla zur unkrautbekämpfung im reisanbau [German]. Z. Pflkrankh. PfiSchutz, Sonderheft, XI, 349–355.Google Scholar
  17. Kröck T, Alkämper J, Watanabe I 1988b. Effect on an Azolla cover on the conditions in floodwater. J. Agron. Crop Sci., 161, 185–189.Google Scholar
  18. Kulasooriya S A 1991. Constraints for the widespread use of Azolla in rice production. Nitrogen Fixation. Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences, Fifth Intern. Symp. on Nitrogen Fixation with Non Legumes, Sept. 10–14,1990, Florence, Italy. (Ed. by Polsinelli M, Materassi R, Vincenzini M) 48, 473–479.Google Scholar
  19. Kumarasinghe K S, Eskew D L 1993. Isotopic Studies of Azolla and Nitrogen Fertilization of Rice. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht. 145 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lamarck J B P A M 1783. Azolla filiculoides Lam. Encyclopedia Methodique: Botanique, 1, 343 pp. Pancknocke, Paris.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu X L, Wang D B 1985. The techniques for growth and collection of green Azolla spore [Chinese]. Soil Fertil., 4, 40–43.Google Scholar
  22. Liu Z Z 1987. Reevaluation of Azolla utilization in agricultural production. In: Azolla Utilization. Proceedings of Workshop on Azolla Use, Fuzhou, Fujian, China, 31 Mar-5 Apr 1985. Int. Rice Res. Inst. 67–76.Google Scholar
  23. Lumpkin T A, Plucknett D L 1980. Azolla: botany, physiology and use as a green manure. Econ. Bot., 34, 111–153.Google Scholar
  24. Lumpkin T A, Plucknett D L 1982. Azolla as a Green Manure: Use and Management in Crop Production.Google Scholar
  25. Westview Tropical Agriculture Series (Ed. by Lumpkin T A). Westview Press, Boulder. 230 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Mochida O 1987. Pests of Azolla and control practices. International Azolla Training Course, Fujian Agric. Sci. Acad. and Int. Rice Res. Inst., Fuzhou, Fujian, China, June 6–19, 1987.Google Scholar
  27. Nguyen C T 1930. L’Azolle cultivée comme engrais vert [French]. Bull. Econ. Indochina (Hanoi), 33, 335–350.Google Scholar
  28. Rains D W, Talley S N 1979. Uses of Azolla in North America. In: Nitrogen and Rice. Int. Rice Res. Inst., Los Banos. 419–432.Google Scholar
  29. Rajendran R, Reuben R 1991. Evaluation of the water fern Azolla microphylla for mosquito population management in the rice-land agro-ecosystem of south India. Med. Vet. Entomol., 5, 299–310.Google Scholar
  30. Reddy K R, DeBusk W F 1984. Phosphorus removal by Azolla caroliniana cultured in nutrient enriched waters. Practical Application of Azolla for Rice Production, Proc. Int. Workshop, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, 17–19 Nov 1982 (Ed. by Silver W S, Schroder E C). Nijhoff Junk, Dordrecht. 13.Google Scholar
  31. Roger P A 1993. Les biofertilisants fixateurs d’azote en riziculture: potentialités, facteurs limitants et perspectives d’utilisation [French]. In: Raunet M, ed. Bas-fond et Riziculture. 327–348.Google Scholar
  32. Sanginea N, Van Hove C 1989. Amino acid composition of Azolla as affected by strains and population density. Plant and Soil, 177, 263–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sarkar A, Jana S 1986. Heavy metal pollutant tolerance of Azolla pinnata. Water Air Soil Pollut., 27, 15–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shi D J, Hall D 1988. The Azolla Anabaena association: historical perspective, symbiosis and energy metabolism. Bot. Rev., 54, 353–386.Google Scholar
  35. Shiomi N, Kitoh S 1986. Use of Azolla for multiple purpose [Japanese]. Water Purif. Liq. Wastes Treat., 27 (2), 123–130.Google Scholar
  36. Shiomi N, Kitoh S 1987. Nutrient absorption capaCity of Azolla from waste water and use of Azolla plant as biomass. J. Plant Nutr., 10 (9), 1663–1670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Silver W S, Schröder E C 1984. Practical application of Azolla for rice production. In: Silver W S, Schroder E C, eds. Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences. Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk, Dordrecht. 13, 227.Google Scholar
  38. Singh P K 1977. Multiplication and utilization of fern Azolla containing nitrogen-fixing algal symbiont as green manure in rice cultivation. Il Rizo, 26, 125–137.Google Scholar
  39. Smith J B 1910. Azolla vs. mosquitoes. Entomol. News, 21, 437–440.Google Scholar
  40. Strasburger R E 1873. Ueber Azolla. Verlag von Ambr. Abel., Leipzig. 76–86.Google Scholar
  41. Tuzimura K, Ikeda F, Tukamoto K 1957. Studies on Azolla with reference to it as a green manure for rice-fields (translated from Japanese by A S Clifton). Nippon Dojohiryogaku Zasshi (J. Sci. Soil Manure Japan ), 28, 17–20.Google Scholar
  42. Van Hove C 1989. Azolla and its multiple uses with emphasis on Africa. FAO, Roma. 53.Google Scholar
  43. Van Hove C, Colot C, Ghesquiere L 1994. From the research station to the field: the missing link. In: Sadiki M, Hilali A, eds. Recent Developments in Biological Nitrogen Fixation Research in Africa. IAV Hassan II, Rabat. 542–547.Google Scholar
  44. Vlek P L G, Fugger W, Biker U 1992. The fate of fertilizer N under Azolla in wetland rice. Proceedings of the 2nd Esa Meeting, Warwick, UK.Google Scholar
  45. Wang Q P, Chen J, Wu M H 1981. Techniques for oversummering Azolla Jiliculoides as spores [Chinese]. Fukien Agric. Sci. Technol., 3, 21–22.Google Scholar
  46. Watanabe I 1987. Summary report of the Azolla program of the international network on soil fertility and fertilizer evaluation for rice. In: Azolla Utilization. Proc. Workshop on Azolla Use, Fuzhou, Fujian, China, 31 Mar-5 Apr 1985. Int. Rice Res. Inst. 197–205.Google Scholar
  47. Zeng D 1954. Green manure value of Azolla [Chinese]. Nongye Kexue Tongxun, 12, 636–638.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. van Hove
  • A. Lejeune

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations